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Child Development Midterm Ed 107
Terms in this set (29)
What does brain maturation involve? What are synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, and myelination? How do these processes influence physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development? Provide examples, especially for specific types of skills like gross motor movement, sense of self, emotion regulation, etc.
Brain maturation involves synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, and myelination.
Synaptogenesis - A process in brain development whereby many new synapses(connections) appear during the first few years of life.
Synaptic pruning - A process in brain development whereby many previously formed synapses wither away, especially if they have not been used frequently. --Neurons are then located to new places.
Myelination - The growth of a fatty sheath around neurons that allows them to transmit messages quickly. Around 3 years old: Synaptic pruning and myelination takes place.
Physical Development: motor skill (myelination - when a child gets hurt they have a delayed reaction, as you grow up older it speeds up the myelination) when the child has the experience of getting hurt they build a connection (synaptogenesis) perhaps they touched the stove, pre-injury the connection they may have formed was that the stove looked warm and inviting this connection may subsequently be pruned(Synaptic pruning). Recall that touching the stove causes pain will get faster as myelination increases. As developing the precursor skills all the way to walking new connections form.
Cognitive Development: before children develop a sense of self they harbor an idea that others think and feel the same way they themselves feel. Once they develop theory of mind a new connection this only connection may be pruned. sense of self.
Social-Emotional Development: emotional regulation when young children are taught techniques for emotional regulation they build connections or pathways (synaptogenesis) starting from the emotion and ending with appropriate expression. If these pathways are reinforced then initially developed pathways such as anger 》screaming will be pruned (synaptic pruning). The responses may be slow at first, the child may take time to go through the pathway simmering in anger a while before taking the deep breaths, and then expressing appropriately. As their brain matures and the pathway becomes more myelinated the child will move through the steps of regulating their emotions me quickly.
An example Jessica gave in the review session is that of maturation in regards to sense of self. In order to recognize yourself in the mirror is like a process. You have to have synaptogenesis in visual development, you have to have synaptogenesis in touching the mirror, you basically have to have a lot of cognitive development in order to then be able to recognize that it's you in the mirror. Also, in order to recognize yourself in the mirror you have to have to recognize that not everyone thinks what you're thinking (theory of mind).
What is brain plasticity? Why is it important for development? How does it relate to the environment? (including experience-expectant and dependent-processes) and specifically to learning? What benefit does it serve for adaptability? Provide examples.
Brain plasticity - capacity of the brain to be modified by experience. (brain's ability to change)
Important for development: brain is easily modified when you're younger. (brain has to change in order to learn: walk, concepts, gross motor movements).
Neurons can be lumped into two categories:
Experience Expectant: Prewired processes in the brain that need experience to develop. (Expecting language in environment)
Experience Dependent(Unique and flexible parts of our brain, not prewired). Processes in the brain that involve active formation of new synapses in response to individuals unique environment.
Texting: We use our thumbs a lot.
-Experience Expectant: Babbling. Hearing: Prewired areas that are going to hear sounds. Have to have other people talking around you. Ability to use your tongue, mouth lips)
(university capacity for language)
-Experience Dependent: Language that you learn. (Bilingual, monolingual ect) People around you: Amount of words being used, amount of interaction
(specific language you learn - all babies will babble (same sounds), but they don't all speak the same language).
Being able to survive in your unique environment.
Being able to learn new languages. If your brain wasn't able to change, then you won't be able to learn the language.
Ex. Those who live in areas with a lot of snow/ice have more words for it than what we do in California. This helps those who live in the cold to survive in their environment-- be an experience dependent process.
A general example of brain plasticity-- those who have suffered from strokes are able to rehabilitate thanks to brain plasticity. The type of plasticity would be that of compensation.
What is attachment? Why is it important for children's development? Does attachment apply to student-teacher relationships? Why would educators need to know about attachment, especially early childhood educators? Provide examples.
Attachment - the strong emotional tie towards important people in a person's life.
Important for children's development: whether or not they can trust/depend on others,
Key Features of Attachment:
Proximity maintenance: Want to stay close to the people you are attached to.
Safe Haven: We view that person as a safe person who will protect us. (In face of threat we use them as a safe haven)
Secure Base: Little kids being reassured by knowing that caregiver is there.
Separation Distress: When you are not with your caregiver it is super upsetting. 10 month old baby: Doesnt like being held by stranger
- It's because the teacher and the student has a reciprocal relationship
-When you see these characteristics, or DON'T see these characteristics you can judge attachment styles.
Important for childhood educators
- Whether the kids are more for secure attachment or insecure attachment. The educator will have to know the cultural background of these kids in order to understand their attachment styles, approach, and format lessons in a way where they will learn.
-Also, for those students that do have a secure attachment with caregiver(s), knowing this they can then use parent as a resource.
-Educators would need to know about attachment because in special cases, some children don't form secure attachments with their caregivers and may need that responsiveness from elsewhere, in this case, from the teachers.
What is serve & return? How is it related to brain development? How is it connected to attachment? Why is it important for children's development? How might it impact later academic outcomes/contribute to education gaps? Provide examples.
Serve and return - Fundamental adult child interactions → more interaction you get back, you continue to develop in that way. The level of serve and return dictates attachment
Serve and return relates to brain development—by brain forming new connections between different parts of the brain (ex. When an adult reads to a child and points to an object the child forms the connection between sound and object)
"Still Face" - when a child gets responses back, he is encouraged to continue the behavior, but when a child gets a response with a "straight" face, he tries to get a reaction with all kinds of behaviors. → relating to this basically whatever the emotion the mom gives off will impact emotional development.
Develops emotions and language. - kids have emotional contagion. In language, the more words the kid is exposed to the more words the more language.
When kids are given praise and encouragement it may lead to more achievements in the kids' life. -- because giving feedback influences motivation and achievement.
What is toxic stress? Why is it problematic for children? What are the long-term consequences of toxic stress? How does toxic stress influence academic performance?
Children get obesity (for ones who never know when they're ever going to get food again).
Results in diminished abilities to concentrate, remember, and restrain impulses, culminates in high risk for alcohol and substance abuse, cardiovascular disease, and other serious health problems.
Toxic stress won't allow child to concentrate in the classroom.
→ hungry- less able to focus
→ abusive parents -- on edge, mistrust of adults, hiding bruises
What is emotional regulation and why is it important, especially for learning? What helps children develop better emotion regulation skills? Provide explicit examples of things that contribute to emotion regulation in children. Why does it improve with age?
Emotional regulation - the strategies for adjusting the intensity of emotions to an acceptable level to achieve a goal. (the ability to control your emotions and express in an "acceptable" way)
Emotion regulation is important for school - when you're studying, lots of distractions, can experience disappointment when have to choose academics over socializing or playing, we still study to be successful. Also, when you get a bad grade in one class have to regulate emotion in order for it not to affect you in other classes.
Helps: Seeing people model better control over their emotions, deep breathing, guidance - helping them label their emotions.
You learn from previous experiences, looking up to adults deal with those situations, brain maturation, coping strategies.
Emotion regulation improves with age because as children get older they are able to take another perspective(theory of mind). Also in regards to physical development, as children get older they are more able to control their body which in turn helps emotion regulation.
What is Theory of Mind and why is it important? What does having a theory of mind enable children to do? How does it facilitate learning? How does it connect to meta-cognition? Provide examples.
Theory of Mind - the ability to think about other people's mental states and form theories of how they think. (what you think is not what everyone else is thinking)
It's important because it helps develop self-concept and empathy.
Enables children: before children may think that what they like is what others like, but theory of mind enables them to realize that others don't like the same exact things as they do. Theory of mind enables young children to be attentive to what others wants. Enables them to recognize that not everyone thinks as they do. Theory of mind enables emotion regulation. Theory of mind enables child to perspective taking (looking at others point of view and allowing to be in their shoes).
Facilitate learning: enables more complex thinking.
Connect to meta-cognition (thinking about your thinking): trying to understand why others think in their way or why you're thinking in your specific way. So, if you're aware of others thoughts, you are then aware of your own thoughts.
→ note-taking, people type their notes in class because they say it's faster. People write their notes in class because it helps them retain the information better.
→ Some are able to study in a busy classroom with noise, meanwhile others need a completely quiet environment in order to study
-Development: The relatively enduring growth and change that makes the individual better adapted to the environment, by enhancing the individual's ability to engage in, understand, and experience more complex behavior, thinking, and emotions.
-Focus on what is functional for them to thrive in their specific environment. What is most adaptive in different environments.
-Time frame for development: Preconception(Start) and ends when you die. Womb to the tomb.
(This class will go from preconception to 12.)
Why study child development?
If you know typical development, you can pick up on atypical development. (and help kids)
-Cross Cultural Differences: If you want to know what is adaptive, you must understand different cultures.
Ideas that you have genetic parameters that move things in the right direction.
Bowling alley analogy
Structurally built that it's all going to go that way, but if you don't throw the ball, it doesn't happen. Language is an example: If you isolate kid completely language won't develop.
Why do cross cultural differences matter?
Hopi Indians(babies strapped to the back of moms). Learn to walk on a totally different timeline.
Why does it matter for educational practices?
-It's important to understand what children are capable of learning. Need to understand their capacities. Need to understand Peer Relationships, what happens developmentally. If teacher sees something atypical, they can communicate with the parents
What is the study of human development and what time frame does it include?
-The study of human development helps us understand how human beings change from the time of conception, through the childhood and adolescent years, and on into adulthood, old age and death. (Preconception-Death
She said in class
What are three essential qualities of development change?
Persistent: Once a new developmental ability is introduced, it typically remains in the child's repertoire of skills, as with abilities to walk and talk.
Cumulative: A new ability builds on the previous one, as when a toddler shifts from eating with his fingers to using utensils, first occasionally and then consistently.
Progressive: Children gradually become more capable and responsible, even though they sometimes revert to less mature forms, as when a 4-year-old girl, who has learned the need to express her disagreements verbally, every now and then regresses to hitting a classmate during a heated argument.
Nature vs Nurture (Child Dev)
Nature: genetic inheritance guiding a child's growth
Nurture: The influences of the social and physical environment in which the child lives
Three Developmental Domains
Physical Development: concerned with the biological changes of the body.
Cognitive Development: refers to the age-related transformations that occur in children's reasoning, concepts, memory, language and intellectual skills.
Social-emotional Development: includes the many modifications that occur in emotions, self-concept, motivation, social relationships, and moral reasoning and behavior
their characteristic ways of responding to emotional events, novel stimuli, and impulses, are affected by their individual genetic makeup.
Qualitative Change (including Stage Theories):
Sometimes development reflect dramatic changes in the essence or underlying structure of a characteristic. When children learn to run, they propel their bodies forward in a way that is distinctly different from walking...etc. Page 8 Stage theories - a period of development characterized by a particular way of behaving or thinking. Developmental stage theory - individuals progress through a series of stages that are qualitatively different from one another (p. 8). Hierarchical models - each stage is seen as providing the essential foundation for modifications that follow.
Jean Piaget was a stage theorist (p. 8).
Erik Erikson was a stage theorist (p. 9).
Historically, stage theories emphasized universal progression: All children were thought to go through the same sequence of changes. Piaget strong believer in this.
Many theorists now believe that qualitative changes do exist - not as inevitable, universal, and hierarchical patterns, but rather as dynamic and somewhat individual states of thinking and acting that evolve as children mature and try new things.
Quantitative Change: (In Development)
Not all development involves dramatic change. Development frequently occurs as a gradual progression, or trend with many small additions and modifications to behaviors and thought processes. Example - children gradually grow taller and learn more and more things about such diverse realms as the animal kingdom and society's rules for showing courtesy.
Describe some of the many ways in which nature and nurture interact, support, and constrain development.
The developmental process itself is a factor in growth. Current structures in the child's brain and body constrain the handiwork of nature and nurture. Example - during a child's prenatal growth in the womb, new cells specialize in particular ways and move to appropriate locations depending on signals from nearby cells.. . . This cascade of reactions allows fingers to sprout, project from the palm, elongate, and differentiate into the elegant digits that will permit buttoning a shirt and drawing with crayons.
The relative effect of heredity and environment vary for different areas of development. (not sure if this is part of it. It is the next paragraph on p.6).
Inherited tendencies make individual children more or less responsive to particular environmental influences.(heading for next paragraph)
Some genes exert their effect only in certain environments. (next paragraph).
Individual differences in heredity amy exert stronger effects when environments are favorable than when impoverished. (next paragraph).
Timing of environmental exposure matters (next para.).
Children's actions affect their environment. (Last para).
Describe/Define Universality and Diversity in Development
Universality refers to those developmental changes that occur in just about everyone. Example - children learn to sit, walk,and run, almost invariably in that order provided there are no significant disabilities present.
Diversity refers to those change that are highly individual or different between groups. Example-in boys and girls or among members of different cultures.
Describe Theories of Child Development (and some of the big names use those theories for studying child development)
Biological Theories - focus on the adaptive capacity of children's brains and bodies in supporting their survival, growth, and learning (Heredity (nature) as a principal driving force behind development). These emphasize the maturation of children's bodies, perceptual abilities, and motor skills.
Maria Montessori was one of these theorists.
Three key principles that a practitioner can take away from biological theories are; a) children's maturational levels impose limits on their abilities and interests; b) children's age-related motivations serve valuable functions for them,such as prompting exploration; c) individual children are born with unique dispositions that interact with environmental experiences to influence learning emotional expression, and interactions with other people.
Behaviorism and Social Learning Theories - developmental change is largely due to environmental influences (nurture).
B.F. Skinner is a big name in behaviorism.
Serious limitation of behaviorism is that it focuses exclusively on children's visible behaviors, with little consideration for how internal thought processes influence those actions. Another problem is that children can become overly focused on rewards and lose sight of their own interests in learning or behaving..
Social learning theories portray children's beliefs and goals as having crucial influences on their actions. In recent years social learning theory has increasingly incorporated thought processes into explanations of learning; accordingly, the succeeding framework is sometimes called social cognitive theory.
Psychodynamic theories - focus on the interaction between a person's internal conflicts and the demands of the environment. They focus on social and personality development and, often, on abnormal development.
Sigmund Freud earliest of these theorists. He focused on sexual and aggressive impulses.
Erik Erikson another of these theorists. He focused more on other parts of the developing personality, especially desires to feel competent and sure of one's values, commitments, and direction in life.
These theories highlight the significance of children's social-emotional needs.
A significant weakness of psychodynamic theories has been the difficulty of supporting claims with research data. Also, generalizations cannot necessarily be made from the studies that theorists conduct. Finally, research has refuted several ideas central to psychoanalytic perspectives.
Two things to be learned from psychoanalytic theories; first, children often have mixed and confusing emotions. Adults can help children by teaching them to express their feelings in ways that both honestly reflect their experience and are acceptable to other people. Second, children who have gotten off to a rough start in family relationships need extra support in child care and schol.
Cognitive-Developmental Theories - emphasize thinking processes and how they change, qualitatively, over time. Children play an active role in their development.
Taking a developmental perspective means looking sympathetically at children and understanding the logic of their thinking. It is a mistake to hurry children beyond their current capacities.
Central criticism is that researchers rarely find that children's performance reflects clear-cut stages. Children often move back and forth between more and less advanced ways of thinking.
Important principle that emerges from cognitive-development theories is that teachers need to understand children as children.
Cognitive Process Theories - focus on basic thinking processes. Central concerns are how people interpret and remember what they see and hear and how these processes change during childhood
These theories can easily overlook the larger issue of why children think as the do..
Sociocultural Theories - concentrate on the impact of social systems and cultural traditions. These theories portray development as the process of children becoming full participant in the society into which they were born.
Limitation; describes children's thinking with less precision than have investigators working within cognitive process perspectives.
A key principle is that children learn valuable skills by being engaged in authentic tasks.
Developmental Systems Theories - help to clarify how multiple factors combine to promote children's development.
The power of developmental systems theories is that they capture it all - nature, nurture, and the child's developmental level, activity, and personal characteristics. Ironically, the integrative character of this type of framework generates its own weaknesses. It is difficult to make predictions about any single factor in development because the effects of each factor are inextricably intertwined with other elements.
What are the age ranges typically used to segment childhood and what are key features of each period?
Infancy; birth -2years (p. 21) Remarkable time characterized by rapid growth and the emergence of essential human traits, including emotional bonds with other people, language, and mobility.
Early Childhood; 2-6 years (p. 22). Time of imaginative play, rapid language development, advancing motor skills, and expanding social skills.
Middle childhood; 6-10 years (p. 22-23) Children tackle in earnest the abilities that they need to participate effectively in adult society; they also develop friendships and internalize many of society's rules and prohibitions.
Early Adolescence; 10-14 years (p. 23-24) Youngsters are preoccupied with the physical changes of puberty and sensitive about how they appear to others; at the same time they are thinking in increasingly abstract and logical ways.
Late Adolescence; 14-18 years (p.24) Period of intensive interaction with peers and greater independence from adults.
What is Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)? What are some key characteristics of DAP in general and by each age range?
Children are nurtured most effectively when adults understand how they generally progress but also show sensitivity to individual needs; instruction and caregiving adapted to the age, characteristics, ands developmental progress of individual youngsters.
What is developmentally appropriate practice(DAP)
Knowing about child development and learning (knowing about typical development)
Knowing what is individually appropriate (need to know what in particular works for a child...other than what is just typical development)
Knowing what is culturally appropriate(Think about many different cultures)
Draw on children's strengths
Recognize that immaturity serves a purpose(Ex: When babies are born they can see 9-12 inches...but this is adaptive, because being able to see everything would be super overwhelming..The immaturity of the visual response serves a purpose)
Meet children where they are(Tailor it directly to where they are)
Must appreciate that the environment makes a difference
You can use norms to help make predictions, but they are not absolute(Merely guidelines)
Brief Historical views of Children
Historically we thought of children as mini adults...Age of reason was thought of as 7.
-Ideas About PREFORMATION: Idea that children are preformed in the sperm.
-Two important Philosophers
Tabula Rasa: Blank Slate. (Children are completely blank and nurture affects everything.)
One of the first to write about us caring about children
"The minds of children are as easily turned this or that way as water itself"
Jean Jacques Rousseau(1712-1778)
His idea: Children are born innocent.
He wanted society to keep this innocence, instead of letting them becoming corrupted. This is why he cared about child development.
"Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the Maker of the world but degenerates once it gets into the hands of the man
-Industrial Revolution: Children in factories working. (Worked for cheaper than adults)
-Alot of children orphans.
---> Perfect time for people to care about kids. 1836 get the first school laws. Labor Laws.
Few people who start to think systematically about child development.
Baby Biography: Systematic recording of a child's development. One of the first Developmental Scientists
Growth Curve: Preyer
Language. Children go through very predictable patterns for language development
-Sensitive Period(Sensitive Slopes): Optimal time for certain development to occur and when environmental influences are most effective in fostering occurrence.
-Language. Children are born universal languages.
-Binocular Development: Eyepatch.
-Puberty: Childrens who watch screens before bed, develop more behavioral and health problems.
-Critical Period: Times when certain biological or environmental experiences must happen
-Conrad Lorenz: Birds: Imprinting. Will follow that thing everywhere.
The degree to which an an element of development is dictated by the common genetic program all humans inherit. (For the most part, there are genetic ways for which we develop certain things....
.....Crawl→ Cruise→ Walk. #CannalizedProcess. Babies babble in the same way #CannalizedProcess
Nature vs Nurture
87. The vision of older adults can be affected by age-related changes. One of these changes, which can make steps and curbs difficult to manage, is a decline in:
What is the LACE consensus model?
Adolescent egocentrism is characterized by excessive
According to Freud's view of morality a boy develops his morals and concience by going to church every week*****
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