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a political system in which a ruler holds total power

Constitutional Monarchy

a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law/constitution

Divine Rights of Kings

A theory assumed that God apponinted all monarchs to rule on his behalf


French word for writers and thinkers during the Enlightenement

Natural Rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

Social Contract

an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society, the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will

Separation of Powers

the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

Enlightened Absolutism

A new type of monarchy in the 18th century; in the system rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers


Religous philosophy that states God created the universe but let reasons and natural law run it.


Economic philosophy means to let people do as they choose

Louis XIV

King of France who was the best example of an absolute Monarch

Peter the Great

czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government

Catherine II

Empress of Russia who practiced enlightened absolutism

Phillip II

Catholic King that made Spain the most powerful country in Europe during the 14th century.

Thomas Hobbes

believed in his book Leviathan that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority

John Locke

English philosophers that wrote about natural rights.


published the first encyclopedia

Adam Smith

Economist who wrote about Laissez-Faire


French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers

Mary Wollstonecraft

believed natural rights of the Enlightenment should extend to women


Wrote about the Social Contract

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