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21 terms

Absolutism and Enlightenment

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Absolutism
a political system in which a ruler holds total power
Constitutional Monarchy
a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law/constitution
Divine Rights of Kings
A theory assumed that God apponinted all monarchs to rule on his behalf
Philosophe
French word for writers and thinkers during the Enlightenement
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Social Contract
an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society, the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Enlightened Absolutism
A new type of monarchy in the 18th century; in the system rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers
Deism
Religous philosophy that states God created the universe but let reasons and natural law run it.
laissez-faire
Economic philosophy means to let people do as they choose
Louis XIV
King of France who was the best example of an absolute Monarch
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Catherine II
Empress of Russia who practiced enlightened absolutism
Phillip II
Catholic King that made Spain the most powerful country in Europe during the 14th century.
Thomas Hobbes
believed in his book Leviathan that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority
John Locke
English philosophers that wrote about natural rights.
Diderot
published the first encyclopedia
Adam Smith
Economist who wrote about Laissez-Faire
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers
Mary Wollstonecraft
believed natural rights of the Enlightenment should extend to women
Rousseau
Wrote about the Social Contract