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AP Euro chapter 16: Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1589-1715)
Terms in this set (76)
(1608) alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism. Catholic princes responded with the Catholic League (1609). The two armed camps erupted in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). (p. 499)
union of Catholic nobility in France - led by Henry of Guise
Thirty Years' War
Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ends with peace of westpahlia.1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Albert of Wallenstein
Catholic Union general that fought for the Hapsburgs during the Thirty Years' War against the Danish, split from the Catholic Union
Edict of Restitution
An edict that outlawed Calvinism and Lutheranism in many parts of Germany and prompted Sweden to enter the Thirty Years' War. Emperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to Catholic Church
Swedish Lutheran king who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years' War and lost his life in one of the battles (1594-1632)
(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
A permanent army of professional soldiers
(Person) "Henry of Navarre", first king of Bourbon dynasty. Married to Marie de Medicis and nearly assassinated by Catherine de Medicis. Protestant, but converted to Catholicism for the French people. Established the Edict of Nantes.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. Intendants played a key role in establishing French absolutism.
(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
a french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
Parlement of Paris
The main court of law in France, which competed with members of the court for influence over the king. Members were known as "nobility of the robe," while the hereditary, military-oriented courtiers were "nobility of the sword".
A nickname for Louis xiv that captures the magnificence of his court and of the Palace of Versailles, which he built. Louis himself adopted the sun as his emblem.
A palace built for Louis XIV near the town of Versailles, southwest of Paris. It was built around a chateau belonging to Louis XIII, which was transformed by additions in the grand French classical style
The style in seventeenth-century art and literature stressing discipline, balance, and restraint and thus resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance- e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
War of the Spanish Succession
war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France
Peace of Utrecht
1713, ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Treaty of the Pyrenees
(1659) Treaty that stopped conflicts between Spain and France and had Spain give land to France.The treaty marked to end of Spain as a European power.
German princely family who ruled in alliance with the Holy Roman Empire and controlled most of Central Europe
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
Frederick William I
The "Soldiers King" this ruler established Prussian absolutism and transformed Prussia into a military state.
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Describes the ruthless Mongol rule over the Slavs for about 200 years after the conquest of Genghis Khan. The Mongols used existing Slavic princes as servants and tax collectors. Good princes were rewarded with heredity. Alexander Nevsky began the process of making the princes more powerful, and it was finished by Ivan III, who overthrew the Mongols and became Russia's first tsar.
The Russian term for ruler or king; taken from the Roman word caesar.
Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires; based in part on continuity of Orthodox church in Russia following fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Russian family that came to power in 1613 and ruled for three centuries.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
This young Swedish king's forces won many victories against the Russians in the early years of the Great Northern War, but after introducing a number of military reforms Peter the Great ultimately defeated him at the decisive 1709 Battle of Narva
Great Northern War
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
battle that won Peter the Great the Northern War
Russia's Capitol founded by Peter
A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century.
Military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
The Christian slaves of the Ottomans who were not eligible for government positions and served instead as a part of the Ottoman military
an administrative unit in the Ottoman Empire used to organize religious groups.
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks.
(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
(1603-1625) Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
House of Commons
the first legislative body of Parliament whose members are elected
One of the two divisions of Parliament that was made up of more middle class and average people that were occasionally elected into office by their peers but more the most part were elected into office by the largest local landowner. The House of Commons were more independent meaning they were allowed to speak their minds more than the members of The House of Lords without losing their political roles.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
(1573-1645), archbishop of Canterbury, insisted on complete uniformity in church services, attempted to impose a new book of prayer on Scotland in 1637, the Scots revolted
in earlier times, coastal towns had to supply the king with ships, or their value in money. Charles I made all towns and landowners pay ship money.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Navigation Act 1651
prohibited Dutch merchants from the colonial trade and gave English traders a monopoly by requiring that goods imported into England or its American settlements be carried on English ships.
In 1660 the monarchy was restored the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland in the person of Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
Test Act 1673
Only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices
catholics need to take the test of Anglican Eucharist in order to teach, go to school, or university
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
Following the English Civil War, this event involve the British Parliament once again overthrowing their monarch in 1688-1689. James II was expelled and William and Mary were made king and queen. Marks the point at which Parliament made the monarchy powerless, gave themselves all the power, and wrote a bill of Rights. The whole thing was relatively peaceful and thus glorious.
William III & Mary II
Protestant couple who ruled England as a result of the Glorious Revolution.
became the monarchs when James I fled to France. They were given the bill of rights to sign- protected the rights of the citizens and limited the monarchs power
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
2nd Treatise of Civil Government
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Collection of people who run various departments in government. Usually report to the chief executive, such as the prime Minister, or the President.
Sir Robert Walpole
best known Whig; essentially first Prime Minister of England
the leader of the majority party in Parliament who leads the cabinet today
term used by the national assembly of the United Provinces of the Netherlands where the wealthy merchant class held real power; because many issues had to be refereed back to the provinces, the United Provinces was a confederation, or weak union of a strong states.
Local prince who led the provinces of the Low Countries during times of trouble. Otherwise business and politics in the region were carried out locally and independently.
House of Orange
This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution
Leaders of most of the 7 provinces of the Dutch Republic, favored development of a centralized government with themselves as hereditary monarchs
The decedents of William of Orange, who often held a certain grip on the Dutch people. They acted as stadholder in times of need.
Bank of Amsterdam
This innovative bank regulated the exchange rates of different currencies in Amsterdam, which helped stabilize the chaos that resulted from trading many different coins. Having a system minimized things like dishonesty and quickly fluctuating preferences when traders/merchants exchanged currency. Once this was regulated, gyro banking became possible because each individual business agreement was not unique in its exchange rate.
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