Terms in this set (67)
Ignatius of Loyola-Spiritual Exercises
He was a Spanish priest, theologian, and founder of the Jesuits. Spiritual exercises are a set of christian meditations, prayers, and mental exercises. They were composed with the intention of helping participants in religious retreats to discern the will of God in their lives.
John of Leyden
He was an Anabaptist leader who moved to Munster and became the leader of the Munster Rebellion. He turned Munster into an Anabaptist theocracy and proclaimed himself "king of Munster".
He was Scottish and was a leader of the Reformation and considered the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.
He was Spanish and rejected the idea of the trinity. He developed the Unitarian belief and was arrested in Geneva and was burnt at the stake as a heretic. Calvin set him up because they didn't get along.
Leader of Reformation in Switzerland. Preached ideas on reforming RCC. Attacked customs of fasting during lent, noted corruption in hierarchy, promoted clerical corruption, attacked the use of images in a place of worship, clashed with Anabaptists.
Catherine de Medici
Queen of France who got power by ruling through her three sons. She is blamed for the excessive persecution of Huguenots on St. Bartholomew's day Massacre.
Henry of Navarre
King of France who was Protestant . He converted to Catholicism for political reasons but passed the Edict of Nantes to promote religious tolerance for Huguenots.
King of Sweden who was Protestant. He died in the Thirty Year's war.
Worked for Louis XIII and believed politics were more important than religion and proved this by becoming Protestant. He became Protestant to fight against the Hapsburg family to weaken them.
Son of Henry of Navarre and became King of France. Cardinal Richelieu did all of the work for him.
The belief that baptism should be administered to mature adults who understand what's happening, opposed to infants who don't understand. This allowed people to join the religion later in life. This concept was so dangerous because the followers refused to listen to secular leaders.
A christian idea that God is one entity, which is in direct contrast to Trinitarianism, which defines God as three persons in one being.
Those in a position of power who put the success and well-being of their state above all else(religion).
Ex. Henry IV was put in charge despite his religion of Protestantism.
St. Teresa of Avila
Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic Saint, Carmelite nun. Established Carmelites. Named a "Doctor of the Church" by Pope Paul IV. Wrote the "Interior Castle" and the "Way of Perfection"
Religious institutes of the Catholic Church, founded by St. Angela de Merici, which had the purpose of educating young girls and nursing the sick.
St. Batholomew's Day Massacre
A massacre of thousands of Huguenots in France arranged by Catherine de Medici.
Edict of Nantes
Signed by Henry IV to give Huguenots freedom in France, which was still considered Catholic at the time. Promoted religious tolerance.
Peace of Augsburg
An agreement between HRE Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League to allow Lutheranism and Catholicism into Germany. The state princes were allowed to select the religion of their domain and it allowed free emigration of residents who dissented.
Defenestration of Prague-1618
Two Roman Catholic ministers closed down Protestant churches being constructed which violated the Peace of Augsburg. An assembly was held in Prague and these two ministers were found guilty and were thrown from the council room windows. This was the beginning of the Thirty Year's War.
Edict of Restitution
An edict passed by Ferdinand to try to restore religious and territorial settlements after the Peace of Augsburg. It was against Protestantism and forced them to convert back to Catholicism or move to Protestant controlled states.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Year's War and started the "Balance of Powers" in Europe.
An alliance of states in the Holy Roman Empire that wanted to become Protestant.
Balance of Power
All European countries tried to be equal in power and when one country started to gain power, the others would team up and bring that country back down to be equal again.
Sack of Rome-1527
An army of Spanish Catholics and Lutherans, under Charles V, invaded Rome. The invasion challenged the authority of the Catholic Church and marked a considerable advance for Protestantism.
Augsburg Confession of Luther
In 1530, Phillip Melanchthon wrote this for Martin Luther. In the 13 years since the 95 Theses were posted, a lot had changed in Lutheranism. This defines Lutheranism today and is as important as the 95 Theses.
Siege of Vienna-1529
First attempt by the Ottoman Empire, Suleiman the Great, to capture the city of Vienna.
Battle of Lepanto
First significant victory for the Christian forces by stopping the Ottoman Empire(not Suleiman)from invading Europe.
Cuius Regio, Eius Religio
means "whose realm, his religion". Used in the Peace of Augsburg meaning the leader decides the religion of his land.
German and wrote the Confessions of Luther
The belief that you have a personal connection to God, therefore going to church is unnecessary.
Established by Catholic monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was to maintain Catholic faith and those converting from Judaism or Islam would become Catholic.
Pope Leo X
He sold indulgences and excommunicated Martin Luther in 1520. He was also a patron the arts.
Pope Julius II
"War Pope", he fought with anyone who disagreed with him. Comes from Borgia family and was a huge patron for the arts.
Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V
He was catholic and came from the Hapsburg family. His main job was to protect the Pope so he was constantly at war. Passed the Peace of Augsburg after getting tired of fighting with Protestants. He resigned because his job was stressful and took a lot of energy, also he was in pain because of disorders due to incest.
Followers of John Wycliffe
Katherine Von Bora
Martin Luther's wife who managed the household and was a role model to women at the time.
Protestant Union vs. Catholic League
Groups of religious states that negotiated political issues and eventually led to the Thirty Year's War.
Peter Paul Rubens
Baroque painter well-known for his counter-reformation pieces, "Raising of The cross" and "Fall of the Phaethon"
Battle of Mohacs-1526
Fought by the Ottoman Empire(Suleiman) and Hungary. Ottoman victory led to the division of Hungary for many centuries. Marks the end of Hungary being an independent country.
Pope Clement VII(Medici)
His reign was dominated by the spread of the Protestant Reformation. He refused to annul Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Henry passed the Act of Supremacy and created the Church of England.
Pope Paul III
Last of the Renaissance Popes and was a patron for the arts. Started the Counter-Reformation by calling the Council of Trent.
Pope Paul IV
He did not reassemble the Council of Trent and he suppressed Clerical abuses.
Council of Trent-1545
Makes Jesuits official and gives them power. Beginning of Counter-Reformation. The council defined heresy, and went over key statements and clarifications of the churches doctrine and teachings.
A war fought by followers of Jon Hus and various Catholic monarchs who were enforcing the Catholic Church's authority. Jon Hus's followers won granting them freedom.
Sigismund I the old
Polish king who allowed Lutheranism into Poland.
John Calvin's summary of biblical theology used by Protestants.
King Gustav I Sweden
King of Sweden for 37 years and saw the break of the Roman Catholic Church. He established the Lutheran Church of Sweden. "Founder of modern Sweden"
Thirty Year's War
Started in 1618 and was the last religious war in Europe. It was fought throughout the Holy Roman Empire. An extension of the Eighty Year's War(last thirty years).
An attempt by radical anabaptists to establish a communal sectarian government in Munster. Turned Munster into an anabaptist theocracy and John of Leyden was one of the leaders.
Sigismund II Augustus
Son of Sigismund the old and became King of Poland. He allowed any religion.
Diet of Speyer
The meeting where the Holy Roman Emperor threatened the people to stay Catholic which caused more people to want to become Protestant which led to the Schmalkaldic League.
Eighty Year's War
A war between Catholic Spain and the Netherlands trying to become Catholic.
Initiated by Philip II where over 100 ships from Spain were going to invade England, however, England knew it was coming so they produced a navy and when Spain lost a few ships they decided to return home. This was a total failure and was the beginning of the end for Spain.
A cause of the Protestant Reformation. He was not killed because of geography and social class but was announced a heretic after death where he was dug up from his grave and his bones were burned.
Lived in Bohemia and picked up where Wycliffe left off. He was giving a warning but din't listen. He was excommunicated and burnt at the stake. His followers were named "Hussites".
Studied ancient Greek and Roman books and found the "Donation of Constantine" which gives the Pope all of the power and he realized that Constantine did not write it. He discovered that the Pope's power is based on a false document.
The belief that it's OK to study Christianities origin and find weaknesses.
They are a ticket to Heaven sold by the RCC. The money was going to renovations of Saint Peter's Basilica.
When someone pays the church to become a Bishop, Cardinal, or Pope.
A secular and religious leader.
Roman Catholic belief that when you eat the bread it becomes the body of Christ and when you drink the wine, it becomes the blood of Christ.
Spark of the Protestant Reformation by selling indulgences.
Was an expert in the Bible and had a public debate against Martin Luther to try and humiliate him but it failed.
Lutheran belief that when you eat the bread and drink the wine, it is only a symbol, it does not actually turn into the body and blood of Christ.
A letter sent by the Pope to Luther threatening him of execution and he burns it publicly.
German Peasants Revolt-1524
Peasants hear of Luther's ideas of starting a new religion and believed if he could start a new religion that they could start a new society.