33 terms

Bio Lecture 9

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Food Supplies
-great advancement in farming methods
-USDA and FAO sources
Food security
-Ability to obtain food on a day to day basis
-poverty the cause
Famines
Large scale starvation, social disruption, economic chaos
Malnourishment
-1/2 world population lack certain diet components.
Anemia
Lack of Iron (80% of pregnant women in India)
Protein deficiency
Can cause permanent damage.
-kwashiorkor=protein deficiency=abandoned child.
-Malabsorptive hunger=inability yo absorb nutrients if food is offered.
Undernourishment
-Lack of calories can be fatal
-always causes permanent damage.
-Marasmus=protein and calorie deficiency.
-Seasonal hunger=annual harvest cycle
Over-nourishment
Obesity
Dramatic yield improvement in crops
-pushed production ahead of population growth.
-Crops bred only for increased yield
Agro
diplomacy
Major producers provide world safety net
-Carryover stocks
-price volatility at less than 60 days supply often repeated since early 1990
American "foreign aid"
-Goal= to open foreign markets for our products.
-our products= seed, fertilizer, pesticides.
-food giveaways= food for peace (1954)
-Monsato vs india and the world = agro- piracy
- patenting the neem tree and basmati rice
-food giveaways= food for peace (1954)
Destroyed foreign ag infrastructure while stimulating our own production
-made dependent on us
-intent vs incompetence - you choose
composition
mineral and organic
mineral
sand, silt, clay in range of mixtures
sandy soils
well aerated, but prone to drying out
clay soils
heavy and easily waterlogged
organic
humus
soil organisms
near surface, perform many functions
Erosion
-natural process, but naturally slow
-rate depends on climate
Accelerated Erosion
-Due to human activity
Desertification
-Due to mistreatment of soil
-common in human history, the footprint of civilazation
Arid regions
sometimes can have droughts
-Native vegetation drought=tolerant
-cultivated crops not drought= tolerant
Modern "high input" farming
eg: Corn on corn, same crop every year
-causes problems for soil organisms and fouls ground and surface water supply
Groundwater depletion
-Ogalalla aquifer of Great Plains
-it's use needed dust bowl, its demise may bring on new dust bowl
Water-logging and salinization
improper irrigation methods
Farmland Conversion
-land lost to urbanization and other uses
-usa loses 1 million acres per year
Heavy reliance on fossil fuels in the USA
Expensive fuel elevates food prices
Insect pesticide resistance
-A new pesticide that kills 95% on first use
Sustainable Agriculture
-Controlling erosion and fertility most important
-Low input agriculture
Manage topography
-strip cropping, contour plowing
Reduce tillage
tillage limits pests put allows erosion
organic agriculture
pesticide free commands higher prices