Disease Detectives Vocabulary and Terms
Title pretty much says it all.
Terms in this set (32)
population oriented, studies community origins of health problems related to nutrition, environment, human behavior, and the psychological, social, and spiritual state of a population. The event is more aimed towards this type of epidemiology.
studies patients in healthcare settings in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases and the prognosis for patients already affected by a disease.
Infectious Disease Epidemiology
heavily dependent on laboratory support.
Chronic Disease Epidemiology
dependent on complex sampling and statistical methods.
An aggregation of cases over a particular period closely grouped in time and space, regardless of whether the number is more than the expected number.
More cases of a particular disease than expected in a given area or among a specialized group of people over a particular period of time.
Large numbers of people over a wide geographical area are affected.
An epidemic occurring over several countries or continents and affecting a large proportion of the population.
The systematic and ongoing collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data. The purpose of public health surveillance is to gain knowledge of the patterns of disease, injury, and other health problems in a community so that we can work towards their prevention and control.
A serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas. It was one of the scourges of our early history. There are three major forms of the disease: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic.
An animal that transmits disease. For example a mosquito is a vector for malaria.
A physical object that serves to transmit an infectious agent from person to person.
The probability that an individual will be affected by, or die from, an illness or injury within a stated time or age span.
An infectious disease that is transmissible from animals to humans.
Time in between when a person comes into contact with a pathogen and when they first show symptoms or signs of disease.
Present at a continuous level throughout a population/geographic area; constant presence of an agent/health condition within a given geographic area/population; refers to the usual prevalence of an agent/condition.
Hill's Criteria for Causation
Nine criteria must be met to establish a cause-and-effect relationship.
Strength of Association
relationship is clear and risk estimate is high.
observation of association must be repeatable in different populations at different times.
a single cause produces a specific effect.
consideration of multiple hypotheses before making conclusions about whether an association is causal or not.
cause/exposure must precede the effect/outcome.
an increasing amount of exposure increases the risk.
the association agrees with currently accepted understanding of biological and pathological processes.
the condition can be altered, either prevented or accelerated, by an appropriate experimental process.
the association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge, including knowledge of past cases and epidemiological studies.
A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease.
A place where agents can thrive and reproduce.
Portal of Exit
A place of exit providing a way for an agent to leave the reservoir; the route a pathogen takes out of an infected host. Portals of exit tend to be fairly well defined. What serve as portals of exit are often not terribly surprising, at least, once something is known of how and where a pathogen replicates and enters new hosts. Respiratory infections tend to utilize the mouth and nose as portals of exit. Gastrointestinal diseases tend to exit in feces or saliva, depending on the site of replication. Sexually transmitted diseases tend to have portals of exit at the urethra or genital region. Blood-borne diseases tend to exit via arthropods, needles, bleeding, or hypodermic syringes. A more general portal of exit occurs when an infected animal is butchered or an infected person undergoes surgery. The three most common portals of exit are the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract.
Mode of Transmission
Method of transfer by which the organism moves or is carried from one place to another; the transfer of disease-causing microrganisms from one environment to another, particularly from an external environment to a susceptible individual. There are three general categories of transmission: contact, vehicle, and vector.
Portal of Entry
An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host; the route a pathogen takes to enter a host. Just as with the portals of exit, many pathogents have preferred portals of entry. Many pathogens are not able to cause disease if their usual portal of entry is artificially bypassed. The most common portal of entry is the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.
A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying, and resulting in infection.
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