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68 terms

Social Psychology

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social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attitudes
personal beliefs and feelings that may predispose a person to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events
bystander effect
the tendency of a person to be less likely to offer help to someone if there are other people present
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
states that aggression is triggered when people become angry because their efforts to achieve a goal have been blocked
fundamental attribution error
our tendency to underestimate the impact of situations and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions upon the behavior of others
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance theory
refers to the theory that we act to reduce the psychological discomfort we experience when our behavior conflicts with what we think and feel, or more generally, when two of our thoughts conflict
conformity
the tendency to change one's thinking or behavior to coincide with a group standard
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas between individuals or groups
scapegoat theory
proposes that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame
self-fulfilling prophecy
occurs when our expectations of how people will behave cause us to treat them in ways that elicit such behaviors
self-serving bias
the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
social facilitation
the improvement in performance of simple or well-learned tasks that occurs when other people are present
social loafing
the tendency for individual effort to be diminished when one is part of a group working toward common goals
social trap
a situation in which conflicting parties become caught up in mutually harmful behavior as they pursue their perceived best interests
super ordinate goals
mutual goals that require the cooperation of individuals or groups otherwise in conflict
group polarization
refers to the enhancement of a group's prevailing tendencies through discussion, which often has the effect of accentuating the group's differences from other groups
GRIT(Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction)
a strategy of conflict resolution based on the defusing effect that conciliatory gestures can have on parties in conflict
groupthink
refers to the unrealistic thought processes and decision making that occur within groups when the desire for group harmony becomes paramount
just-world phenomenon
a manifestation of the commonly held belief that good is rewarded and evil is punished
informational social influence
results when one goes along with a group when one is unsure or lacks information
in-group
refers to the people and groups with whom we share a common identity
in-group bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
normative social influence
refers to the pressure on individuals to conform in order to avoid rejection or gain social approval
mere exposure effect
refers to the fact that repeated exposure to an unfamiliar stimulus increases our liking of it
out-group
refers to the people and groups that are excluded from our in-group
stereotype
generalized (often over generalized) belief about a group of people
stereotype threat
the phenomenon in which a person's concern that he or she will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype is actually followed by lower performance
social exchange theory
states that our social behavior revolves around exchanges, in which we try to minimize our costs and maximize our benefits
self-disclosure
refers to a person's sharing intimate feelings with another
companionate love
refers to a deep, enduring, affectionate attachment
passionate love
refers to an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another persons, especially at the beginning of a relationship
prejudice
an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members
equity
refers to the condition in which there is mutual giving and receiving between the partners in a relationship
deindividuation
refers to the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint that sometimes occurs in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
altruism
is unselfish regard for the welfare of others
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
Approach-approach conflict
A conflict between two desired gratifications, as when a youth has to choose between two attractive and practicable careers, may lead to some vacillation but rarely to great distress
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
A conflict between two dangers or threats
Approach-avoidance conflict
choices regarding something positive, such as going out to a party, that has a negative valence (avoidance), such as getting grounded for being at the party. These decisions and the emotional state of ambivalence cause stress
Zimbardo's Prison Experiment
A group of Stanford students were assigned to either play the role of prison guard or prisoner.
All were dressed in uniforms, and the prisoners were assigned numbers. The prisoners were locked up in teh basement of the psychology building, and teh guards were put in charge of their treatment.
The experiment ended early because of the cruel treatment the guards were inflicting on the prisoners.
Group Norms
Rules about how group members should act. For example, businesses may have rules governing appropriate work dress.
Obedience Studies
Studies that foucs on participants' willingness to do what another asks them to do. Milgram (1974) found that over 60% of the participants obey experimenters' orders to hurt someone.

Participants' compliance is decreased when they are in close contact with those peopel whom they are being ordered to harm.

When the experiementer left in the middle of the experment and was replaced by an assistant, obedience also decreased.

When other people were present in the room and they objected to the orders, the % of participants who quit in the middle of the experiment skyrocketed.
Social Impairment
Being watched by others hurts performace when the tak being observed is a difficult one rather than a simple, well practiced one.
Attraction Research
Social psychologists study what factors increase teh chane that people will like one another:
- Similarity - we are drawn to people who are similar to us.
- Proximity - the greater you exposure to another person, the more you will generally come to like that person.
- Reciprocal liking - the more someon like you, the more you will probably like that person.
Bystander Effect or Diffusion of Responsibility
the vicious murder of Kitty Genovese in Kew Gardens, NY committed with view of at least 38 witnesses, none of whom intervened, led John Darley and Bibb latane to research this.
the larger the number of people who witness an emergency situation, the less likely anyone will be to intervene. The larger the group who witness a problem, the less responsible any one individual feels to help.
People tend to assume someone else will take action.
Ethnocentrism
the belief that one's culture (ethnic group, racial group, etc) is superior to others
Discrimination
the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their membership in a certain group or category
False-Consensus Effect
tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them
Individualistic Cultures
importance and uniqueness of the individual is stressed
Collectivist Cultures
a person's link to various groups such as family or company is stressed; importance is stressed on the whole
Norms of Reciprocity compliance strategy
one compliance strategy used to get others to comply; people think they ought to do something nice to someone who has done something nice for them
Door-in-the-Face compliance strategy
one compliance strategy used to get others to comply; sugges that after people refuse a large request they will look more favorably upon a follow-up reques that seems much more reasonable
Compliance Strategies
strategies used to get others to comply; i.e. foot in the door phenomenon, door in the face strategy, norms of reciprocity
Festinger & Carlsmith
conducted experiment about cognitive dissonance in late 1950's; concluded that to reduce cognitive dissonance, participants changed their attitudes and said that they actually did enjoy the experiment
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
one way a persuasive message can be processed; involves other aspects of the message (i.e. characteristics of people imparting the message). Appealing to fears, desires and associations.
Central Route to Persuasion
one way a persuasive message can be processed; involves going directly through the rational mind, influencing attitudes with evidence and logic.
Conformity
tendency of people to go along with the views or actions of others; Asch performed conformity experiment; more likely to occure when a group's opinion is unanimous
Attribution Theory
explains how people determine the cause of what they observe
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
based on the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors; when they do not, they experience unpleasent mental tension or dissonance
Reward Theory of Attraction
Theory that we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and that we will continue relationshps that offer more rewards than costs.
Situational Attribution
Factors outside the person doing the action, such as peer pressure
Dispositional Attribution
A person's stable, enduring traits, personality, ability and emotions.
Asch Conformity studies
about 1/3 of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with the group.
Groupthink
In pursuit of social harmony groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas. Example: Bay of Pigs invasion.
Group Polarization
When people of similar views form a group together, discussions within the group makes their views more extreme.