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PSC 101 Exam 1
Terms in this set (60)
In 2014, the Department of Justice's guidelines regarding enforcement of federal laws against marijuana use called for
(WRONG ANSWER) strict enforcement of all federal laws in states that had not yet legalized marijuana use.
Prior to the Constitutional Convention, what two models of intergovernmental relations predominated throughout the world?
unitary and confederated
One of the chief weaknesses of the confederated form of government is that it
(WRONG ANSWER) stifles the sort of careful deliberation through which wise policies emerge.
Which of the following statements best captures the meaning of the term "elastic clause," when applied to the U.S. Constitution?
(WRONG ANSWER) The federal government can assume authority normally delegated to the state governments whenever it sees fit.
Under the U.S. Constitution, the federal government's ability to coin money is an example of
an enumerated power.
According to the Tenth Amendment, any powers not granted to the national government by the Constitution
belong to either the people or the states.
Based on the U.S. Constitution, the powers to pass ex post facto laws or bills of attainder are both
The supremacy clause, stipulated in Article VI of the Constitution, holds that
in a conflict between federal and state laws, the former will override the latter.
In the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Chief Justice John Marshall argued that
the federal government had the right to charter a national bank, and state governments had no right to impede its functions through taxation.
Which of the following instances best exemplifies the doctrine of nullification?
A state government declares that a federal law, which it is unconstitutional, will not be enforced within the state.
What term describes the arrangement in which powers of the state and national governments are distinct and autonomous in their own domains?
During the period of 1865 to 1932, the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court tended to
refuse to allow the federal government to intervene in the right of states to issue licenses and to regulate commerce within their borders.
The Progressive Era witnessed the implementation of all but which of the following measures?
effective federal laws to ensure that African American citizens could exercise their constitutional right to vote
Which of the following statements best characterizes the attitudes and actions of progressive presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson?
(WRONG ANSWER) They were dismayed by the overarching regulatory powers claimed by previous administrations, and actively worked to pare down presidential intervention in the economy.
How did Franklin Roosevelt respond to Supreme Court challenges to his New Deal programs?
(WRONG ANSWER) He abandoned his economic interventionism and restored a purely free-market economy.
During which of the following presidents' administrations did the federal government's power, especially with regard to the economy, increase the MOST?
(WRONG ANSWER) Ronald Reagan
"Marble cake" federalism is also known as
(WRONG ANSWER) dual federalism.
Creative federalism sought to eradicate racial and economic injustice by
targeting money directly at citizen groups and local governments.
Which of the following presidents developed the policy of revenue sharing?
The term devolution refers to the
shifting of power from the national government to the states and local governments.
Which of the following presidents was the strongest advocate of devolution?
Federal grants to states and localities are highest in this category:
A proponent of the autonomy of local government would object MOST strongly to
Which type of program requires state governments to spend their own money to meet standards imposed on them by the federal government?
The MOST contentious part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has been its
requirement that everyone have health insurance and purchase it if necessary.
In its 2013 United States v. Windsor ruling, the Supreme Court held that
the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act infringed the Fifth Amendment rights of same-sex couples.
has won increasing support in recent years.
The Supreme Court would MOST likely refer to the Eleventh Amendment in a case involving a
private citizen suing a state government for alleged violation of federal law.
The full faith and credit provision of the Constitution requires
state governments to recognize and uphold the legal judgments of other states.
The Supreme Court has ruled that states may not discriminate against non-residents in regard to certain fundamental rights based on which provision of the Constitution?
privileges and immunities
The National Security Agency
is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense.
The National Security Agency's campaign of monitoring electronic communications for potential terrorist activities
focuses on foreigners, but includes incidental collection of Americans' data.
When it was ratified, which of the following rights did the Constitution explicitly protect?
the right to demand a writ of habeas corpus
Federalist leader _______________ was the person who drafted the amendments that became known as the Bill of Rights.
Which amendment is MOST responsible for protecting citizens' liberties from intrusion by state governments?
Based on the Supreme Court's current understanding of the First Amendment, American citizens are free to
believe any religious doctrine they choose.
In the 2014 Sebelius v. Hobby Lobby decision, the Supreme Court
(WRONG ANSWER) held that the Religious Freedom and Restoration Act was unconstitutional and invalidated all its provisions.
Most of the founders of the American republic probably had accommodationist views regarding the relationship between church and state, meaning that they believed that
(WRONG ANSWER) Christianity and the Christian Bible should serve as the basis for American laws.
Based on the Lemon test, which of the following laws would likely NOT be considered unconstitutional?
one that helped religious institutions provide secular social services
According to current understandings of the establishment clause, which of the following activities would be legal and constitutional?
(WRONG ANSWER) regular moments of silence, which public school students could use for prayer
What decision was made by the Supreme Court in a landmark 2002 case on the issue of school vouchers?
Providing government vouchers to attend religious schools was ruled constitutional.
In the Supreme Court case involving Charles Schenck, which tested the constitutionality of the Espionage Act, the Supreme Court decided that
freedom of speech could be curtailed if the words produced a "clear and present danger."
Which of the following statements about campaign speech is MOST accurate?
The Supreme Court has consistently rejected limits on campaign contributions as unconstitutional abridgements on individual citizens' rights of speech and petition.
Which of the following forms of symbolic act could be banned based on current understandings of free speech?
burning a draft card
In order for a work to be deemed obscene, an average person must reasonably conclude that the work
lacks any redeeming quality, is predominantly prurient, and is offensive.
Which of the following is one of the two conditions that satisfy the definition of malice under the Sullivan rule?
knowledge that the statements were false
Based on the precedent set by the "Pentagon Papers,"
(WRONG ANSWER) the interests of national security outweigh the public's interest in critiquing government officials.
Why can the government regulate broadcast television more than most other media?
(WRONG ANSWER) because television stations have open access to all citizens, regardless of age
Which of the following special rights of the media is currently recognized by the courts?
the right to attend trials
The U.S. Supreme Court ruling on the Second Amendment in 2008 dramatically changed the meaning of the amendment, asserting that the amendment conferred
an individual right.
Which of the following activities is considered unconstitutional according to current Supreme Court standards?
aerial police searches to investigate suspected drug production
Of the following countries, which one has the highest incarceration rate?
By informing suspects of their right against self-incrimination, the Miranda warning protects their
Fifth Amendment rights.
The Powell v. Alabama case involving the Scottsboro boys was a landmark case with regard to
right to counsel.
Executions in the United States were highest in which of the following years?
In a major death penalty case in April of 2008, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
execution by lethal injection is constitutional.
States that prohibit the death penalty are located primarily
in the Midwest and Northeast.
The Supreme Court recently ruled that the execution of child rapists is unconstitutional on all of the following grounds EXCEPT that
the potential pain suffered by an executed convict in a botched execution amounted to cruel and unusual punishment.
In the case of Washington v. Glucksberg, the Supreme Court ruled that
(WRONG ANSWER) the Constitution guarantees citizens the right to die, and, as such, guarantees them access to assisted suicide.
"Amicus curiae" means
friend of the court.
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