APS and NHMRC Codes of Ethics
Terms in this set (27)
What are the four NHMRC Ethical Principles in Research?
1. Research merit and integrity
What are the three general principles of the APS Code of Ethics
1. Respect for the rights and dignity of people and peoples
What are the 7 ethical standards under General Principle A: Respect for the rights and dignity of people and peoples? (APS)
3. Informed consent
6. Release of Information to clients
7. Collection of client info from associated parties
What are the 14 ethical standards under General Principle B: Propriety? (APS)
2. Record keeping
3. Professional responsibility
4. Provision of psychological services at the request of a third party
5. Provision of psychological services to multiple clients
6. Delegation of professional tasks
7. Use of interpreters
8. Collaborating with others for the benefit of clients
9. Accepting clients of other professionals
10. Suspension of psychological services
11. Termination of psychological services
12. Conflicting demands
13. Psychological assessments
What are the 7 ethical standards under General Principle C: Integrity
1. Reputable behaviour
3. Conflict of interest
6. Financial arrangements
7. Ethics investigations and concerns
What are the 5 steps in the APS Ethical Decision Making Model?
1. Recognise there is an ethical issue present
2. Clarify ethical issues
3. Generate and examine available courses of action
4. Choose and implement the most preferred option
5. Reflect and review the process
According to the NHMRC Ethical Principles in Research, what is risk and how do you assess it?
Risk - potential form harm, discomfort, or inconvenience.
- Likelihood and severity of harm
- Extent to which risk can be minimised
- Whether the risk is justified by benefits (merit) of the research
- How risk can be managed
What are five types of risk according to the NHMRC Ethical Principles?
Physical - injury, illness, pain
Psychological - feelings of worthlessness, distress, anger, guilt, fear, devaluation of personal worth
Social - damage to relationships, discrimination and social stigma
Economic - imposing direct/indirect costs to participant
Legal - include discovery and prosecution of criminal conduct (by disclosing certain information)
Distinct human groups w their own social structures, linked by common identity, customs, and collective interests
According to the APS Code of Ethics General Principle A, psychologists demonstrate respect for the rights and dignity of people and peoples by
ACCESS: Regarding people as intrinsically valuable, ensure all people have reasonable and fair access to psychological services and share in the benefits
RIGHTS: Respect and protect their legal & moral rights, and rights to autonomy (participation in decisions affecting their lives) , justice (fair treatment w/o discrimination or favouritism), privacy and confidentiality
DIVERSITY: High regard for diversity and uniqueness, and rights to linguistically & culturally appropriate services
According to the APS Code of Ethics General Principle B, psychologists demonstrate propriety by
Ensuring they're competent to deliver services and practice within limits of competence by undertaking professional development and being aware of their own health and wellbeing on ability to practice
Comply with legislation and org. rules, and the Ethics Code, NHMRC
Provide services to benefit (not harm), and protect interests of people(s) with whom they work, and foresee consequences and take responsibility for their decisions
CLIENT > SELF INTEREST
Ensuring welfare of clients and profession take precedence over self-interest
According to the APS Code of Ethics General Principle C, psychologists demonstrate integrity by
POWER AND TRUST
Recognising that their profession, and information they gather puts them at a position of power and trust, and they honour this by being honest and objective and respecting boundaries with clients
Act with honesty and probity and keep faith with their intentions (which are for the best interest of the clients, profession, and colleagues)
BOUNDARIES and CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
Aware of their boundaries, biases and limits to objectivity, including conflicts of interests (and refrain from exploiting clients and associated parties)
What's the first step in the Ethical Decision Making Model? What does it entail?
1. Recognise there's an ethical issue present;
1A. Learn to recognise potential ethical problems - be sensitive to identifying potential ethical issues, self-introspection for triggers/clues (changing usual practices, providing more self-disclosure, ruminating, avoiding topics)
- ask "Would I be comfortable if my colleagues knew?"
- Any personal needs, values, biases that's influencing your ability to assess objectively
- Consider discussing with a colleague
1B. Determine whether the problem is an ethical one that's your responsibility
- Legal obligations that apply that may even override ethical issues? (Privacy and confidentiality overridden by law requiring reporting of the law without consent).
- Is it based on factual material, from a reliable source?
- Is the problem a shared responsibility (propriety: referring to someone else within expertise if outside area of competence)
What's the second step in the Ethical Decision Making Model? What does it entail?
2. Clarify Ethical Issues
2A. Identify the ethical principles involved
- Which General Principle is involved, and what are the ethical standards that are relevant?
- Are there any competing principles?
- Are there situational forces pressuring you to act quickly? Think about ways to claim more time (quick decisions = poor decisions)
2B. Evaluate rights, responsibilities, vulnerabilities of affected parties
- Identify parties affected (including general public when relevant), rights and responsibilities (confidentiality, autonomy, privacy), and how this issue affects their welfare (remember client welfare takes precedence)
- Identify gaps in your thinking by consulting w supervisor or colleague
What's the third step in the Ethical Decision Making Model? What does it entail?
3. Generate and examine available courses of action (potentially whole range of actions can be taken)
3A. Consider all factors (competence, cultural/social factors, time) that might influence.
3B. If possible take time to consider the decisions, gather more information, consult your colleague/supervisor/organisation.
3C. Examine all decisions and pos/neg consequences of each and foresee (propriety) consequences of all actions
What's the fourth step in the Ethical Decision Making Model? What does it entail?
4. Choose and implement most preferred option
4A. Implement and document actions (including consultation and references to ethics resources), which might be needed later on if there's a complaint or legal action (you need to justify your stance)
What's the fifth step in the Ethical Decision Making Model? What does it entail?
5. Reflect and review the process
5A. Reflection: could I have prevented the issue from developing (and how can I prevent it from re-occurring)? Am I satisfied with the way I handled/the processes I went through to address the situation? Could I have done anything differently?
Why is the NHMRC important? (Think power)
Outlines the relationship between researchers and participants, and there is a potential for a power differential which could lead to an abuse of power (in many ways, drives/needs serve the researcher).
These principles shape the relationship as one of trust, mutual responsibility, ethical equality, and speaks of research 'participants' rather than subjects to reflect this
What are aspects of the guiding principle Respect from the NHMRC?
Recognition of humans' intrinsic value and this informs all interactions, protecting and empowering those who have diminished autonomy (e.g. schizophrenia, drug addicts, etc. -- is the merit of the study worth it? At what point does it become exploitation?)
Abiding by values of research merit&integrity, justice, beneficence.
Respecting welfare (+ privacy & confidentiality), beliefs, perceptions, customs, cultural heritage of individuals and collectives, and their autonomy
What are aspects of the guiding principle Research Integrity and Merit from the NHMRC?
Research is only ethical if the research has merit and the researcher has integrity
Merit: justifiable by potential benefit, conducted honestly, following principles of research conduct, searching for and contributing to knowledge and understanding
What are aspects of the guiding principle Justice from the NHMRC?
Regard for human sameness, and ensure that the benefits of research are obtained through just means (distributive: fair distribution of benefits and burdens; procedural: fair treatment, informed consent, etc.)
Fairly recruited participants, no exploitation of participants, and outcomes should be accessible to participants in a way that's timeline and clear
What are aspects of the guiding principle Beneficence from the NHMRC?
Assessing and taking into account and minimising risks and harms (sensitivity to welfare of people involved; including public and sociocultural implications) and potential benefits of research to participants and wider community
When no likely benefits to participants, risk should be lower than if there would be benefits.
When risk isn't justified - suspend the research to allow time to consider if it should be modified or discontinued.
According to the NHMRC, consent involves the mutual understanding between researchers and participants.
The requirements for consent are (3) and involve the NHMRC guidelines (2)
1. Voluntary (and this continues throughout! They can halt at any time)
2. Based on sufficient info and adequate information and understanding of proposed research and the implications of participation in it
3. No coercion or pressure
2. Respect (human beings have autonomy and capacity to make own decisions)
In the event where some participant groups lack the capacity to consent or consent requires more than one... According to NHMRC
(e.g. children, young people, highly dependent on medical care, those with a cognitive impairment or disability) Person or appropriate statutory body exercising lawful authority for the potential participant should be provided relevant info and decide whether they can participate
Need to engage with all properly interested parties (within certain communities, decisions need to involve family, community elders, constituted bodies, etc.)
What were Diana Baumrind's critique of Milgram's experiment?
1. He had not protected the welfare of the participants - levels of anxiety were enough to warrant halting the experiment.
2. The scientific worth of the study did not balance out distress caused by participants (social psychology isn't like medicine, and cannot produce life-saving results; few parallels between Nazi death camps and this study) - cost-benefit weren't analysed, prioritised career/research interest.
3. Negative impact of this work on the image of psychology (participants weren't respected or protected)
4. Participants weren't given the right to withdraw. Participants were told 'you must go on', and even though 14/40 did withdraw, the choice was made more difficult by the experimenter's prods.
5. Participants weren't fully informed of the serious aftereffects (physical, psychological e.g. self-esteem loss of dignity or trust in rational authority) and Milgram himself didn't demonstrate beforehand or predict that his correctives would be effective
What is one takeaway from Milgram's study in its application to research ethics in general?
Finally, one further issue regarding Milgram's study is worth pointing out. Although the ethics of Milgram's research have been questioned, it could be argued that the obedience study, more than any other study in psychology, demonstrated why ethics are important. Recall that what Milgram's study showed was that ordinary people were willing to harm another human being just because they were told to do so by a person they believed was a psychologist, and because doing so was supposedly 'required by the experiment'. This shows that people generally are ready to give scientists the benefit of the doubt and go along with what they are doing, even when it involves harming individuals. This in itself illustrates how important it is to have some moderation of scientific activity, and have limits imposed on what scientists can and cannot do.
What are the limits to confidentiality, and when do you inform of these to the client?
1. With consent or relevant client or person w legal authority to act on their behalf
2. Where there is a legal obligation to do so
3. If there's an immediate and specified risk of harm to an identifiable person or persons that can be averted only by disclosing info
4. When consulting colleagues or in the course of superivison or professional training, provided that the psychologist
4a. conceals identity of client and associated parties involved
4b. obtains the client's consent and gives prior notice to recipients of info that they're required to preserve client's privacy and obtains an undertaking from the recipients of the info that they'll preserve the client's privacy
Psychologists inform clients at the outset of the professional relationship, and as regularly thereafter as is reasonably necessary of the 1. limits to confidentiality, and 2. forseeable uses of the info generated in the course of the relationship
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