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law & ethics exam 2
Terms in this set (54)
What is behavioral ethics
why well intentioned people make bad/unethical decisions that don't live up to the OWN ethical standards
biases and heuristics (reasons and rationalizations) that can impede ethical decision making
Heuristics = decision making shortcuts
part of the cause of confusing behavioral ethics
a. when minor transgressions build on each other until you are making a MAJOR transgression
i. we slowly lower the bar of our ethicality
ii. slippery slope
a. gathering and processing and remembering information to the advantage of our self interest
i. ignore competing feedback
tangible & abstract bias
decisions are impacted most strongly by tangible factors
i. when you or people you know could be harmed, you do more to be ethical
abstract factors are less powerful
i. nameless/faceless people are easier to do wrong to
a. tendency to prefer avoiding losses than acquiring gains
you can aways add your own spin to any issue
b. You can harp on small reasons to sway your negative into being acceptable
a. you think everything you do is "right"
b. causes you to make decisions without much ethical thought
c. unrealistic beliefs about oneself
conformity bias (social proof)
a. peer pressure / social expectation
b. wrong decisions made to please others / fit in
c. group think
a. feeling like you are expected to go along with whatever the business is doing
a. acting in ways that you would view as clearly unethical if you were acting on your own behalf
b. you separate your personal morality from your workplace morality
internal debate / tally system
a. We want to make up for our wrongdoings (COMPENSATION)
b. We give ourselves slack when we do good (LICENSING)
obedience to authority
wanting to please authority
a. substituting our ethical standards for an order given by a superior
b. more concerned about the acceptability of the decision to authority
what is MORAL MYOPIA
a. distortion of moral vision that keeps ethical issues from coming clearly into focus
b. blind to ethical issues (you can get wrapped up into not even noticing anymore)
c. LEVELS: individual, organizational, societal
d. myopia has cause the untrustworthy rep of the advertising industry
individual moral myopia
i. Making unethical decisions to help your self-interest
ii. EX: lying to get a bonus
organizational moral myopia
EX: someone who is against advertising cigarettes doesn't see a problem when her office takes on a cigarette client
societal moral myopia
i. EX: knowing that media impacts female body insecurities, but not seeing the harm in using ultra-thin models in your ad
what is MORAL MUTENESS?
a. you know something is wrong, but you rationalize why you shouldn't speak up about it
i. you don't voice your morals or you communicate in ways that obscure your moral beliefs and commitments
"it's not my place to say"
moral muteness/myopia rationalizations
what's legal is moral
competing goals (mute)
ethics is bad for business (mute)
pandora's box syndrome
what's legal is moral
the law is the moral MIN
---"since it's legal it's moral"
---"since it's illegal, it's immoral"
⇒ If you are living in unethical environments, you start to believe it's not bad
⇒ Sticking your head in the sand to ignore ethical issues
⇒ you might not be sure if it's right, but also don't want to actually think about it possibly being wrong
⇒ When there is some higher good that trumps all other ethical concerns
• The other goal is usually superficial ("the client is always right" or "1st Amend Dodge or Maximize Shareholder Wealth)
⇒ You get so caught up with your goals that you ignore the red flags
ethics is bad for business
⇒ People don't like to talk about ethics
⇒ people think you don't have business savvy if you talk about ethics
pandora's box syndrome
⇒ Getting so wrapped up in what is right that you can't get anything done because one un-ethical thing leads to another one
⇒ When you have different sets of values for different parts of your life
• Jack Abramoff!!!!!!!
• You have different values for your personal life than your business life
⇒ I don't want to rock the boat because I could make some enemies
⇒ I want to be seen as a "team player"
⇒ I don't want to mess with the winning formula
what is MORAL IMAGINATION?
a. the ability to think outside the box and envision ways to be SUCCESSFUL AND ETHICAL
a. EX: Servant leadership
1. false dichotomy: i. "if I want to succeed, I have to be unethical, but if I'm ethical then I will go broke"
i. companies who are acting ethically are generally more popular
1. these "risks" can work out for your favor
how can you EFFECTIVELY play the role of ORGANIZATIONAL CONSCIENCE?
----A professional who raises concerns when his or her organization's actions might bring about troubling consequences to various inside or outside parties
Resourceful, experiential approaches
1. A mock news conference
Showed how unethical behavior can blow up in a company's face
2. The headline test
"would we be okay if we saw these headlines about us in the Austin Statesman?"
3. Writing a speech two ways
An ethical speech is always better?
4. Playing the devil's advocate
----"what if someone were to say......?"
provide ethics alternatives!!
-----You are often most effective if you have a solution RATHER than just finding the problem
informal power coalition
-----Relationship building with key leaders
new marketing myopia
a. So much focus on customer that you forget about stakeholders
b. Stop thinking about them as just a "consumer" --- think of them as mothers, children, doctors, parents..
what is giving voice to values?
a. Putting your values into action
b. Morality means nothing unless it is exercised
c. raises the question "what could i do to make this happen?"
how can you be successful in giving voice to values?
a. Frame in the long run vs. short run
b. Think about organization's wider purpose
c. Watch out for false dichotomies
d. Position yourself as an agent of continuous change
e. Provide actionable alternatives
f. Find allies
g. Point out the costs to various parties
h. Use persuasive arguments
Think about organization's wider purpose
Word of mouth intentions
Watch out for false dichotomies
EX: I have to be unethical and make a lot of money OR be ethical ad go broke
Position yourself as an agent of continuous change
Protect the agency and the client
Always be helping, not harming
Sharron W wished she had taken someone with her to confront Enron boss
Use persuasive arguments
Point out vivid examples of how these situations have played out for other people in the past
difference between descriptive ethics and normative ethics
a. Descriptive Ethics - "is" - Social Science
b. Normative Ethics - "ought" - Philosophy
2 kinds of normative ethics
Moral common sense
ARISTOTLE moral reasoning
o Virtue as a habit
o You have to practice it to develop it
o YOU MUST BE VIRTUOUS
o No thought of outcomes
o Farthest side of the spectrum on virtue based (opposite of interest based)
MILL moral reasoning
o Utilitarianism - thinking about outcomes
o Opposite of Aristotle
o Greatest good for the greatest number
I KANT moral reasoning
o categorical imperative (action as universal law)
o duties, intentions
o think about what would happen if this immoral action were committed by everyone --- would it be okay then? (most likely not)
o EX: what if everyone lied in all of their advertisements?
MLK moral reasoning
o Protection of rights
o It's the woman's right to know there was an accident made by the doctor
RAWLS moral reaosning
ACCEPTABLE ONLY IF IT BENEFITS THE WEAKEST STAKEHOLDER
o Veil of ignorance
♣ can you really be free of your biases?
o difference principle (inequality of benefits/burdens)
♣ if you see that the weakest stakeholder is disadvantaged, it's not ethical
♣ EX: child labor to make Nike shoes --- disadvantage to the weakest party
o The ends justify the means
♣ The end is keeping yourself in power
oYou will have to be a bad guy sometimes if you want to stay in power, but always look good on the outside
theories / intended effects of gender stereotypes
Affect transfer theory
Affect transfer theory
transfer positive effect from the model to the product.
a. advertising effectiveness increased when appropriate models used.
b. Not just for beauty ~ domestic products
attractive models should endorse products that can enhance consumer attractiveness
a. show people in advertisements as passive and disengaged
i. Alluring: less explicit; women submissively looking at the product or camera
a. explicitly aggressive: image of a woman that focuses on her lips, breasts or groin area.
i. Women are depicted in decorative portrayals more often than men
"any presentation emphasizing sexually aggressive body parts or not including the head."
common themes of codes
i. transparency, honesty
iii. full disclosure
iv. truthfulness, building trust
v. actions that reflect well on the industry
limitations of codes
--self-regulation - you are counting on people to monitor themselves
--reactive, come about after problems identified