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Terms in this set (50)
The smallest particle of an element thast retains its idenity in a chemical reaction
Dalton's atomic theory
First theory to relate chemical changes to events at the atomic level
Negatively charged subatomic particle
Positively charge subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Subatomic particle with no charge in a mass of 1 amu; found in the nucleus of an atom
Tiny,dense central portion of an atom composed of protons and neutrons
A stream of electrons produced at the negative electrode of a tube containing a gas at low pressure
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons
Atomic mass unit
A unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
Weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element
What is the composition of the nucleus?
Protons and neutrons
Where are the electrons?
Surround the nucleus
Do you know the charge on each of the subatomic particles found in the atom?
What is the atomic number and what does it tell you?
Number of protons in the nucleus of an element.
Determine the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom.
Protons and electrons is the atomic number. Mass number-atomic number=neutrons.
Designate isotopes and determine the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons using those forms of designation.
Element's name-mass #
What is the mass number of an element?
Number of protons + number of neutrons=(round atomic mass)
What is an atomic mass unit, can you explain it? What is meant by relative atomic mass, relative to what?
How is average atomic mass calculated? What does it mean by "weighted average atomic mass"?
-First person to think of the idea of the atom
-theorized that atoms are
indestructible and indivisible
-atom" comes from greek word "indivisible"
-Model is the sphere.
-Scientist to theorized that all elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.
-Atoms of the same element are identical.
-The atoms of any one are different from those of any other element.
-Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine in simple whole- number ratios to form compounds.
-Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated form each other, joined or rearranged in different combinations.
-Atoms of one element are never changed into atoms of another element by chemical reactions.
-Model is the sphere.
-This scientist used cathode rays to discover the negatively charges particle called electrons.
-Model is the plum pudding model or chocolate chip model.
-Circle with ( + )with( - )around it
-6.626 x 10-34 J s is this scientist constant.
-Energy=constant x frequency.
-Energy id released in small, specific (discrete) packets (amounts) called "quanta".
-Using the oil drop experiment he calculated the mass and charge of the electron.
-Person found nucleus determined that the nucleus was positively charged, discovered protons concluded that most of the atom was completely empty space.
-Experiment: Gold foil.
-The jimmy neutron model.
-Electrons travel about the nucleus and fixed energy levels (orbits).
-The further the orbit is from the nucleus the higher the energy.
-He did his research using hydrogen.
-First person to use the term radioactivity to referred to emission of particles coming from certain elements like uranium.
-Determined that radioactivity was coming from the center of the atom.
-She has no atomic model.
-He discovered another particle in the nucleus of the atom= neutron.
Louis de Broglie
-Suppose that matter electron specifically have a dual nature.
-Electrons can act as both particles and waves.
-Model rainbow wave with a nucleus in the center.
-Use theoretical calculations to determine the location of electrons.
-His mathematical equation describes the probability of finding an electron in an area of space.
-His model is known as the cloud model.
-Uncertainty principle= it is impossible to know both of the velocity and the position of an electron the same time
-He discovered that when neutrons are produced in the splitting of uranium the neutrons might continue to split other uranium atoms
-process starts a chain reaction releasing an enormous amount of energy first atomic pile later created for self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction
What distinguishes the atoms of one element from the atoms of another?
The number of protons.
How do the isotopes of a given element differ from one another?
Different mass numbers and different numbers of neutrons.
How is atomic mass calculated?
mass of each isotope x natural abundance + products
What equation tells you how to calculate the number of neutrons in an atom?
Mass number-atomic number= neutrons
How is atomic number different from mass number?
Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom. Mass number is the number of protons + neutrons in an atom.
What does the number represent in the isotope platinum-194?
The atomic masses of elements are generally not whole numbers. Explain why.
The elements have different isotopes. The atomic mass is the average of all the isotopes of the element that exist.
Which of argon's three isotopes is most abundant: argon-36, argon-38, or argon-40? (Hint: the atomic mass of argon is 39.948 amu.)
Would you expect two electrons to attract or repel each other?
Repel because they are negative charges.
How do the charge and mass of a neutron compare to the charge and mass of a proton?
A neutron has no charge and a proton has a positive charge. A neutron has a relative mass of 1 and a proton has a relative mass of +1.
Why is an atom electrically neutral?
Protons and electrons cancel each other out.
What does the atomic number of each atom represent?
The number of protons in the atom.
How many proton are in the nuclei of the following atoms?
A. Phosphorus (P)
B. Molybdenum (Mo)
C. Aluminum (Al)
D. Cadmium (Cd)
E. Chromium (Cr)
F. Lead (Pb)
What is the difference between the mass number and the atomic number of the atom?
Atomic mass is the total weight and the atomic number is the amount of protons.
Name two ways that isotopes of an element differ.
Different number of electrons they are ions and different number of neutrons they are isotopes.
What is the atomic mass of an element?
A weighted average of mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element.
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