AP Human Geography Unit 2- Population and Migration
Terms in this set (54)
The scientific study of population characteristics.
a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other
a relationship between two factors in which the factors move in the same direction; increasing or decreasing
a relationship when one variable increases while the other variable decreases or vice versa
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Natural Rate of Increase (NRI)
% growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. (This does not include migration)
Population Growth Rate (PGR)
measurement which combines both natural increase and net migration to calculate the overall growth of a country's population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life (or just childbearing years) This tends to be higher in less developed countries (LDC's) because the parents try to compensate for the high infant mortality rate (IMR)
the number of children a couple must have in order to replace themselves in a population. It is on average 2.1 (the 0.1 is because of abnormalities like death, infertility, women not having kids...)
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. *If the population grows at 1% the Doubling time is 70 years (2% = 35 years, 3% = 23.3 years...)
the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years (under 15 and over 64 is too old or young to work) Japan has the highest of these
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
A model to show the cycle of growth in a community/society
Has 4 Stages (Google Image that sh*t) NO COUNTRY IS STILL IN STAGE 2
1st Agricultural Revolution:
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
2nd Agricultural Revolution:
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (ie. Crop Rotation)
We are currently in the 3rd
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
This took place at different times all over the globe but the most famous is the one above
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Stage 1 of DTM:
CDR and CBR are both high, Total Population does not change and there is little to no PGR. The longest stage, no country is still in this stage but parts of countries can be
Stage 2 of DTM:
people start to learn of the basics of hygiene and we start to domesticate animals. we go from hunter gatherer to farmer as we start to grow crops
CDR decreases while CBR rises along with the total population. PGR increases
Every country is at least in this stage
Stage 3 of DTM:
most urban countries are here
CBR and CDR start to even out PGR is still positive but not as great as stage 2
Stage 4 of DTM:
CDR and CBR even out and PGR goes back to zero but total population is high
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. (Google Image that sh*t)
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state
An increase or decrease in the size of a population. It is equal to (Births + Immigration) [[minus]] (Deaths + Emigration).
"The False Prophet"
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence, or food supply. (1766-1834) said population grew exponentially while food supply grew arithmetically
In Malthusian theory, another way to stabilize human population includes all the factors that prevent human birth among which he advocated for 'moral restraint,' including late marriage and celibacy until a couple can afford to support children.
In Malthusian theory, the effects of war, disease, and famine in controlling excess population growth
Principal critic of Malthusian theory who argued that overpopulation could be solved by increasing the number of subsistence farmers. said that humans would always find a way to support themselves
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition...
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
the movement of individuals out of a population
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
Things that would compel people to move out of a region
Things that would compel people to move into a region
people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
External Migration (International)
Migration across an international border.
Internal Migration (Intranational)
Permanent movement within a particular country.
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.(ex Mountains, water bodies, etc) these are not as much obstacles nowadays because of technological advances and Space-Time Compression
This is a situation like an employment option that can effect where someone moves. They may have intended on moving somewhere else, but a new option encourages them in a certain area.
human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate, powered by cultural factors
The return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated that cancels out the loss of population due to emmigration
the voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin. Also known as circular migration
a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
money migrants send back to families and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries (Indian has the highest rate of remittances received)
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.