64 terms

TFM 160 Exam #2

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

narrative
A fiction film. A movie that tells a story—with characters, places, and events—that is conceived in the mind of the film's creator.
narration
The act of telling the story of the film.
narrator
Who or what tells the story of a film.
voice-over narration
Narration heard concurrently and over a scene but not synchronized to any character who may be talking on the screen.
direct address narration
A form of narration in which an on-screen character looks and speaks directly to the audience.
omniscient narration
Providing a third-person view of all aspects of a movie's action or characters.
restricted narration
Providing a view from the perspective of a single character.
round character
A complex character possessing numerous, subtle, repressed, or contradictory traits. Round characters often develop over the course of a story.
flat character
A relatively uncomplicated character exhibiting few distinct traits. Flat characters do not change significantly as the story progresses.
protagonist
the leading character
antagonist
The character, creature, or force that obstructs or resists the protagonist's pursuit of their goal.
anti-hero
An outwardly unsympathetic protagonist pursuing a morally objectionable or otherwise undesirable goal.
inciting incident (catalyst)
The event or situation during the exposition stage of the narrative that sets the rest of the narrative in motion.
rising action
The development of the action of the narrative toward a climax.
crisis
A critical turning point in a story in which the protagonist must engage a seemingly insurmountable obstacle.
climax
The highest point of conflict in a conventional narrative; the protagonist's ultimate attempt to attain the goal.
resolution
The concluding narrative events that follow the climax and celebrate or otherwise reflect upon story outcomes.
story
In a movie, all the events we see or hear on the screen, and all the events that are implicit or that we infer to have happened but that are not explicitly presented.
plot
The specific actions and events that the filmmakers select and the order in which they arrange those events and actions to effectively convey on-screen the movie's narrative to a viewer.
diegesis
The total world of a story—the events, characters, objects, settings, and sounds that form the world in which the story occurs.
diegetic element
An element—event, character, object, setting, sound—that helps form the world in which the story occurs.
nondiegetic element
Something that we see and hear on the screen that comes from outside the world of the story (including background music, titles and credits, and voice-over narration)
story duration
The amount of time that the entire narrative arc of a movie's story—whether explicitly presented on-screen or not—is implied to have taken to occur.
plot duration
The elapsed time of the events within a story that a film chooses to tell.
screen duration
The amount of time that it has taken to present the movie's plot on-screen, i.e., the movie's running time
surprise
A taking unawares that is potentially shocking.
suspense
The anxiety brought on by partial uncertainty: the end is certain, but the means are not.
properties
Objects used to enhance a movie's mise-en-scène by providing physical tokens of narrative information.
sound stage
A windowless, soundproofed, professional shooting environment that is usually several stories high and can cover an acre or more of floor space.
chiaroscuro
The use of deep gradations and subtle variations of lights and darks within an image.
framing
The process by which the cinematographer determines what will appear within the borders of the moving image (the frame) during a shot.
kinesis
The aspect of composition that takes into account everything that moves on the screen.
familiar image
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blocking
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deep space composition
An approach to composition within the frame that places figures in all three planes (background, middle-ground, and foreground) of the frame, thus creating an illusion of depth.
compositional stress
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rule of thirds
A principle of composition that enables filmmakers to maximize the potential of the image, balance its elements, and create the illusion of depth. A grid pattern, when superimposed on the image, divides the image into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle ground, and background planes and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into additional elements.
three-point lighting
a system that employs three sources of light—key light, fill light, and backlight—each aimed from a different direction and position in relation to the subject.
key light
Also known as main light or source light. The brightest light falling on a subject.
fill light
Lighting, positioned at the opposite side of the camera from the key light, that can fill in the shadows created by the brighter key light. Fill light may also come from a reflector board.
backlight
Lighting, usually positioned behind and in line with the subject and the camera, used to create highlights on the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing its appearance of three-dimensionality.
lighting ratio
The relationship and balance between illumination and shadow—the balance between key light and fill light.
low-key lighting
Lighting that creates strong contrasts; sharp, dark shadows; and an overall gloomy atmosphere. Its contrasts between light and dark often imply ethical judgments.
high-key lighting
Lighting that produces an image with very little contrast between darks and lights. Its even, flat illumination expresses virtually no opinions about the subject being photographed.
halloween lighting
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deep-focus cinematography
The process of rendering the figures on all planes (background, middle-ground, and foreground) of a deep-space composition in focus.
shooting angle
The level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed.
eye-level shot
A shot that is made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the observer's attitude is neutral toward the subject being photographed.
high-angle shot
A shot that is made with the camera above the action and that typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed.
low-angle shot
A shot that is made with the camera below the action and that typically places the observer in a position of inferiority.
dutch-angle shot
A shot in which the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical positions so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
aerial-view shot
An omniscient-point-of-view shot that is taken from an aircraft or extremely high crane and implies that the observer can see all.
pan shot
the horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod; one fluid motion
tilt shot
The vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod; one fluid motion
dolly shot
A shot taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support called a dolly.
tracking shot
When the dolly runs on tracks (or when the camera is mounted to a crane or an aerial device such as an airplane, a helicopter, or a balloon)
crane shot
A shot that is created by movement of a camera mounted on an elevating arm (crane) that, in turn, is mounted on a vehicle that, if shooting requires it, can move on its own power or be pushed along tracks.
steadicam
A camera suspended from an articulated arm that is attached to a vest strapped to the cameraperson's body, permitting the operator to remain steady during "handheld" shots.
handheld
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zoom
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long take
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CGI
Computer-generated imagery. Compare in-camera effect and laboratory effect.
process shot
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motion capture
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