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33 terms

Bio.9vocab

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hereditary
the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
traits
category within which alternate characteristics are observed
pollination
occurs when pollen grains produced in anthers are transferred to stigma
anthers
male reproductive parts of a flower
stigma
female reproductive parts of a flower
cross-pollination
type of pollination involving flowers of 2 SEPARATE plants; remove anthers from a flower & manually transfer to stigma of another flower of a different plant
self-pollination
pollen is transferred from anthers of a flower to stigma of EITHER the SAME FLOWER or FLOWER ON THE SAME PLANT
pure
produces offspring with the same traits
strain
term in regard to plants pure for a specific trait
P1 generation
1st parental generation
F1 generation
offspring of P1 generation; the 1st filial generation
F2 generation
2nd filial generation; generation produced after F1 generation self-pollinated
dominant
shown trait; masked/dominated the other factor for a specific characteristic
recessive
ALLELE NOT EXPRESSED; controls characteristic that did not appear in F1 generation but reappeared in F2 generation
homozygous
organism in which alleles of a pair are ALIKE
heterozygous
organism in which alleles are DIFFERENT
law of segregation
during formation of gametes, the gametes have only one copy of each allele
law of independent assortment
factors for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently
molecular genetics
study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes
allele
made of gene, each of several alternative forms of a gene (Mendel's factors)
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism & consists of 2 alleles that the organism inherits from its parents
phenotype
physical appearance of organism as result of its genotype
probability
likelihood that a specific event will occur
monohybrid cross
cross to look for 1 trait in particular; cross between individuals that involves 1 pair of contrasting traits
punnett square
diagram that aids scientists in predicting the probability that certain traits will be inherited by offspring
genotypic ratio
ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring
phenotypic ratio
ratio of offsprings' phenotypes
testcross
way to examine if something is genuinely a true-breeder; individual of unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual; determines that genotype of any organism whose phenotype is dominant
complete dominance
relationship in which 1 allele is completely dominant over another
incomplete dominance
neither allele is completely dominant over the other allele; F1 offspring will have a phenotype in between that of the parents; occurs when 2 or more alleles influence the phenotype—result=phenotype intermediate b/t dominant an recessive trait
codominance
both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring; neither allele is dominant or recessive NOR do alleles blend in phenotype
dihybrid cross
cross between individuals that involves 2 pairs of contrasting traits; complicated b/c more possible combinations of alleles to work out
true-breeding
the parents & "ancestors" are of exact same lineage; same alleles