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type of pollination involving flowers of 2 SEPARATE plants; remove anthers from a flower & manually transfer to stigma of another flower of a different plant
pollen is transferred from anthers of a flower to stigma of EITHER the SAME FLOWER or FLOWER ON THE SAME PLANT
ALLELE NOT EXPRESSED; controls characteristic that did not appear in F1 generation but reappeared in F2 generation
law of independent assortment
factors for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently
genetic makeup of an organism & consists of 2 alleles that the organism inherits from its parents
cross to look for 1 trait in particular; cross between individuals that involves 1 pair of contrasting traits
diagram that aids scientists in predicting the probability that certain traits will be inherited by offspring
way to examine if something is genuinely a true-breeder; individual of unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual; determines that genotype of any organism whose phenotype is dominant
neither allele is completely dominant over the other allele; F1 offspring will have a phenotype in between that of the parents; occurs when 2 or more alleles influence the phenotype—result=phenotype intermediate b/t dominant an recessive trait
both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring; neither allele is dominant or recessive NOR do alleles blend in phenotype
cross between individuals that involves 2 pairs of contrasting traits; complicated b/c more possible combinations of alleles to work out
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