Genetics HW Ch. 9
Terms in this set (43)
What is the structural difference between the sugar found in RNA and the sugar found in DNA?
The presence of a 2' hydroxyl
Which order of atoms correctly describes the backbone of a DNA strand?
In a strand of RNA, which base is not found covalently linked to a ribose sugar?
Thymine, Uracil, cytosine
Which nucleotides have a double ring structure?
Adenine and Guanine
What did Watson and Crick propose?
A three dimensional structure for DNA
What are the structural features of a nucleoside?
Used Pneumococcus strains and mice to demonstrate there is a "transforming factor" that could change IIR bacteria into IIIS bacteria.
Used Pneumococcus strains and protease, DNase, and RNase to demonstrate DNA was the transforming factor.
Avery, Macleod, and McCarty
Used bacteriophage and E. coli to demonstrate DNA was the genetic material injected by the bacteriophage into E. coli and used to code for new phages.
Hershey and Chase
T or F: In the experiment by Avery, Macleod and McCarty, protease destroyed the transforming factor.
T or F: Hershey and Chase labeled the phage proteins with radioactive sulfur and the phage RNA with radioactive phosphorus.
T or F: Phage are free living cells.
T or F: In the experiment by Hershey and Chase, the bacteriophage injected their DNA into the E. coli cells.
T or F: In the experiment by Avery, Macleod and McCarty, the DNase treated sample was able to transform the IIR strain into the SIII strain.
What aspect of the sugar is unique to RNA?
It contains an OH group on the number 2' carbon of the pentose sugar.
Components of RNA?
typically single stranded
Components of DNA?
typically double stranded
Components of RNA and DNA?
5' to 3' directionality
Rosalind Franklin used X-Ray diffraction to study wet DNA. Her data were used by James Watson and Francis Crick to determine the structure of DNA. What did her data suggest about the structure of DNA?
DNA is a helical structure that is not a single strand and consists of about 10 base pairs per complete turn.
What is Chargaff's rule?
A + G = C + T
The equation is easiest to understand if you assign a percentage to A such as 10% and then work from there. For example if A= 10% then T=10%, and G and C together = 80%. Plug that information into the equation and it is possible to determine the individual amount of G or C present.
If one DNA strand is 5' GATCATTCGTAAGG 3', what is the sequence of the complementary strand?
5' CCTTACGAATGATC 3'
The opposite strand is complementary and antiparallel.
A single strand of RNA with sequence 5'-UGAAUUGCAUCGGCAAUUGG-3' has the potential to form which structure?
The base composition of an RNA virus was analyzed and found to be 17% A, 33% U, 19% G, and 31% C. Do you think the viral genetic material is single stranded RNA or double stranded RNA?
The correct structure of DNA components can be presented as
Which of the following DNA molecules is the most stable?
A piece of double-stranded DNA has 100 base pairs. How many complete turns can this double helix make?
10 complete turns
A piece of double-stranded DNA has 100 base pairs. What is the length of the piece of DNA?
What is one of the criteria that all genetic material must meet?
It must be able to be copied
A male cat and a female cat produce a litter of kittens. Which criteria of genetic material is represented?
T or F : A single strand of unfolded RNA is more complex than a DNA double helix of identical sequence (other than U replacing T).
T or F: Doubled-stranded DNA consists of two antiparallel strands, meaning that one strand is oriented in the 5' to 3' direction, while the other is oriented in the 3' to 5' direction.
T or F: A single strand of unfolded RNA is more complex than a DNA double helix of identical sequence (other than U replacing T).
T or F: DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
Though this doesn't occur in T2 phage proteins, many cellular proteins are phosphorylated (i.e., have a phosphate group that is covalently attached to an amino acid side chain). If T2 phage proteins had been phosphorylated, how would the results have been affected?
There would be more radioactivity in the supernatant.
Overall, the data suggest that
The amount of A = T, and the amount of G = C.
If the genetic material in T2 had been RNA instead of DNA (as in some other viruses), how would this have affected the results?
The results would have been the same.
The purpose of the spectroscopy step was to
Quantitate the amount of each base
Strong acid treatment breaks
The covalent bonds between bases and deoxyribose
Which data are the least convincing with regard to the AT/GC rule?
The purpose of the centrifugation step was to
Separate the phages from the bacterial cells
The purpose of the paper chromatography step is to
Separate the bases
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