An example of a behavior modification technique for weight control is to
keep a record of your eating habits
Since obesity apparently has many causes, even in a single individual, the best approach seems to be
Which of the following is NOT a sensible guideline for diet plans?
eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food.
Which of the following is a feature of physical inactivity and energy balance?
Differences in the time obese and lean people spend lying, sitting, standing, and moving account for about 350 kcalories per day
Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower
physical activity level.
Obesity resulting from an increase in the SIZE of fat cells is termed
hypertrophic obesity.
Which of the following is a feature of prescription drug use for treatment of obesity?
The use of "off-label" drugs is common to take advantage of their modest weight loss effects
Which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes?
Lipoprotein lipase
Which of the following is a relation of "spot-reducing" to exercise?
No exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body.
Which of the following would NOT be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual?
Eat a large number of small meals
What is the Cori cycle?
A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactic acid released by muscles
The first sign of dehydration is typically
All of the following are acceptable definitions of the term fitness EXCEPT
the ability to maintain a normal body composition and remain free of injury while performing strenuous physical tasks.
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low or moderate itensity activity?
Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to replace lost fluids?
Cool water
Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?
Nutrient dense foods
The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as
cardiorespiratory conditioning.
Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise?
Lactic acid
What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?
Which of the following is a benefit of glucose polymer sports drinks as compared with sugar containing drinks?
They attract less water in the GI tract and thus allow more water to remain in the circulation
To help alleviate pregnancy-related nausea, all of the following actions are recommended EXCEPT
eat large, infrequent meals so as to limit contact time with food.
A craving for non-food substances is known as
What term is given to the time period during which irreversible damage to the fetus may occur from specific events such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins?
critical period
In general, what are the chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother?
reduced quantity of milk
With few exceptions, all of the following substances and practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy EXCEPT
artificial sweeteners.
Which of the following is a characteristic of gestational diabetes?
It leads to type 2 diabetes in some women
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status?
Infant's birthweight
What is the recommended increase in daily energy intake, in kcal, for the third trimester of pregnancy?
Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother's nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval BETWEEN pregnancies?
1 1/2 to 2 years
What is WIC?
A food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants
Which of the following should NOT be used to feed an infant?
Whole milk
Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics of hyperactivity in children?
In many cases, it responds favorably to dietary manipulations such as limiting sugar intake
At what age does the normal infant first develop the ability to swallow solid food?
4-6 months
A child who develops antibodies to a certain food is said to have a
food allergy.
The recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals for infants are based on the
average amounts ingested by thriving infants breastfed by well-nourished mothers.
Which of the following is a characteristic of children who regularly eat breakfast or skip breakfast?
Breakfast-skippers actually show lower scores on IQ tests than those who eat breakfast
Which of the following steps should be undertaken by the parent or guardian to ensure that young people eat well?
Control the availability of food
To lower the risk of obesity in children, which of the following practices should parents institute for their children?
Teach them to take appropriate food portions
If a child is reluctant to try a new food, it is best to
quietly remove it and try again at another time.
What should be the parent's response when a one-year-old child wants to clumsily spoon-feed himself?
Let the child try to feed himself so that he will learn
Which of the following products of digestion is NOT normally released directly into the bloodstream?
After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the gastrointestinal tract?
stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?
Hydrolyzed in the GI tract
Which of the following is associated with the presence of fat in the gastrointestinal tract?
Slowing of the process of digestion and absorption
Which of the following is NOT a function of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption?
it activates pancreatic lipase
Which of the following is NOT a sphincter muscle?
What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?
Which of the following would NOT be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?
Which of the following types of diets has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis inflammation?
Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids
What is thought to be the most important nutrition concern for people with Alzheimer's disease?
Ensuring adequate intakes of antioxidant nutrients and DHA
Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from
insufficient intake of vitamin B12.
What nutrients appear to help prevent cataract formation?
vitamin C and vitamin E
To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective EXCEPT
taking vitamin B12 injections.
Goals of the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program include the provision of all of the following EXCEPT
high-cost nutritious meals.
A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is
poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.
Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?
They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth
Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?
They vary according to individual histories
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?
Aging reduces the kidneys' ability to convert vitamin D to its active form
Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?
Intrinsic factor
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?
It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure
Which of the following is NOT among the general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Excesses are eliminated by the kidneys
Which of the following foods in highest in folate?
Green leafy vegetables
Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie?
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?
Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?
Which of the following is NOT among the general characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins?
they must be consumed daily.
Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?
Which of the following is NOT among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A?
All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition EXCEPT
gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
Vegetable oils
What feature is shared by vitamins E and K?
Supplements of either may interfere with anticlotting medications
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?
Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source
Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following EXCEPT
All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition EXCEPT
the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance EXCEPT
lactose in the diet
Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
Helps maintain gastric acidity
Which of the following is NOT among the properties of electrolytes?
They include fat-soluble as well as water soluble particles
Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?
Certain green vegetables
Which of the following is NOT a function of water in the body?
Source of energy
Which of the following people are at known risk for potassium depletion?
Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
Processed foods
Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?
Catalyst in energy metabolism
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
Which of the following is a feature of the minerals in nutrition?
Once minerals enter the bloodstream, they remain in the body until excreted
Which of the following is NOT among the recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency?
All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron EXCEPT
calcium from milk.
Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?
Which of the following is a feature of copper nutrition?
It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing
When eaten in the same meal, which of the following foods enhances the absorption of iron in legumes?
What is the major cause of iron deficiency?
Poor nutrition
Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics shared by iron and zinc?
Transport in the blood is primarily handled by albumin.
Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?
Cauliflower and broccoli
Which of the following may result from iodine deficiency?
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
Meats and whole-grain cereals