Theme 4: African Americans
Terms in this set (34)
1619 first africans
Arrive in 1619 - unclear status
Development of slavery, 1620 > 1700
1787 3/5 Compromise
the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
1793 cotton gin
made growing and selling of cotton on a large scale possible, revolutionized American slavery, cotton plantations spread like crazy
1808 no importation of slaves
constitutions slave clauses are compromises but really embedded slavery even more deeply. Slave trade clause prohibited further importation after 1808
1816 American Colonization Society
dedicated to transporting freeborn blacks and emancipated slaves to Africa., Formed in 1816, stated that the best way to end the slavery problem in the United States was for blacks to emigrate to Africa; by 1822 a few American blacks emigrated to Liberia. Organization's views were later rejected by most abolitionists.
1820 Missouri compromise
decided that slavery would not be restricted in Missouri, Maine became free state, and slavery was not allowed in Louisiana Purchase north of 36,30 latitude. This kept balance in senate between slave and free states. The compromise did not settle the issue of whether slavery would be legal in western territories.
1830s Abolitionist Crusade
Movement to eradicate slavery during the 1830s. Women were very active in this cause due to their sympathy for those with inferior rights. Led to women's rights movement
A comprimise creating California as a free state, giving Utah and New Mexico popular sovereignty and creating a much harsher fugitive slave law.
1854 Kansas Nebraska Act
Allowed the issue of slavery to be decided by a vote of settlers. This established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and would breed much of the rancor that culminated in the actions of the next years of "Bleeding Kansas".
1857 Dred Scott Decision
was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that ruled that people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants—whether or not they were slaves—were not protected by the Constitution and could never be citizens of the United States. It also held that the United States Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories. The Court also ruled that because slaves were not citizens, they could not sue in court. Lastly, the Court ruled that slaves—as chattel or private property—could not be taken away from their owners without due process.
1859 John Brown's raid
white Northerner who raided pro-slavery people in Kansas. Planned to kill slave owners and free slaves. Led raid and everyone raiding was killed. Admired for bravery. Supported by Republicans
1861-1865 Civil War
War between Union (north) and the Confederacy (south) over states' rights and slavery
1863 Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln declared that all slaves within the Confederacy were free
1865 13th Amendment
Outlawed Slavery (Freed all slaves) and forbade involuntary servitude (labor done against one's will) Note: Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (1863) freed slaves only in areas controlled by the Confederacy—needs border states.
1868 14th Amendment
Rights of Citizens—defines citizenship and extends it to blacks. Prohibits states from denying rights and privileges of citizenship to any citizen. Forbids states to deny due process of law and equal protection of the laws
1870 15th Amendment
Former male slaves given right to vote - NOT black/white women
1. The Southern Republican party was reluctant to support black candidates even though blacks gave the Republicans victories with their votes.
2. 16 black congressmen were elected during reconstruction, but no state governors or black majority leaders.
3. Blacks were the majority in some Southern states but never controlled events in a Southern state.
1896 Plessey v. Ferguson
Court case upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal"
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. Literacy tests, grandfathers clauses, and poll taxes limit black voting.
Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise
argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.
WEB Dubois and Niagara Movement
studied slave trade, graduated from Harvard. Was a part of the Niagara movement which was intended to renounce Booker T Washington's accommodation policies set forth in the Atlanta Compromise. Black civil rights organization founded in 1905 that called for the opposition of racial segregation and disenfranchisement...opposed to policies of accommodation and conciliation...part of NAACP
1917-1918 exodus from South
The migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North. African Americans were looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and felt they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North. Start of Great Migration
1920s race riots in North
In the decade immediately preceding World War I, a pattern of racial violence began to emerge in which white mob assaults were directed against entire Black communities. These race riots were the product of white society's desire to maintain its superiority over Blacks, vent its frustrations in times of distress, and attack those least able to defend themselves. In these race riots, white mobs invaded Black neighborhoods, beat and killed large numbers of Blacks and destroyed Black property. In most instances, Blacks fought back and there were many casualties on both sides, though most of the dead were Black.
1920s Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished; pride in being an African American rose.
1930s mixed progress for African Americans
Jesse Owens broke barriers at the Berlin Olympics in 1936, but there was no huge progress made for civil rights.
1941 A. Phillip Randolph plans first march on Washington
He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war.
1940s major exodus from South, race riots, important role of military during WWII (segregated units)
Great Migration continues. Increased violence and race riots. African Americans played a huge role in the military in WWII, and but were made to fight in segregated units.
1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall challenge decision from Plessy v. Ferguson
Court ruled that the separate educational facilities were not equal
1955 - said states must "integrate with great speed"
**(note: when Court announces Brown II decision, Montgomery bus boycotts began)
1954-1968 Civil Rights Movement
a social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.
1963 March on Washington
was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march.
1965 Death of Malcolm X
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
1965 Watts, CA riot
civil disturbance in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles from August 11 to 17, 1965. The six-day riot resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.
1968 Death of Martin Luther King Jr.
In early April 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. A Baptist minister and founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), King had led the civil rights movement since the mid-1950s, using a combination of powerful words and non-violent tactics such as sit-ins, boycotts and protest marches (including the massive March on Washington in 1963) to fight segregation and achieve significant civil and voting rights advances for African Americans. His assassination led to an outpouring of anger among black Americans, as well as a period of national mourning that helped speed the way for an equal housing bill that would be the last significant legislative achievement of the civil rights era.
1992 Rodney King & LA Riots
an African-American motorist driver who, in 1991 was stopped and then beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers (4 white men, then acquitted) after the acquittal riots erupted