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66 terms

Chemistry Exam #3

Chapters 5&6
STUDY
PLAY
Ideal gas
A model of the way that particles behave at the microscopic level
Barometer
pressure is measured with a _____________
760
1 atm= ____ mmHg
760
1atm=_____torr
constant and random
Gasses are made up of tiny atoms molecules that are in _____________ and _____________ motion
False
(TorF) There are attractive and repulsive forces in gasses
easily compressible
expand to fill any container
low density
diffusion
exert pressure on their containers
behave ideally at low pressures and high temperatures
what are the 6 properties of gasses?
1._____________
2._____________
3_____________
4_____________
5_____________
6_____________
Boyle's Law
which law states "the volume of gas varies inversely with the pressure exerted by the gas if the number of moles and the temperature of the gas are held constant
Boyles Law
PiVi=PfVf
Charles' Law
which law states: "The volume of a gas varies directly with the absolute temperature (k) if pressure and number of moles of gas are constant'
Kelvin
the temperature in Charles' Law must be in what unit>
Charles' Law
Vi / Ti = Vf / Tf
Combined Gas Law
Which Law is "Used when a sample of gas undergoes change involving volume and pressure and temperature at the same time
Combined Gas Law
PiVi / Ti = PfVf / Tf
Avogadro's Law
Which Law states "The relationship between the volume and number of moles of a gas at constant temperature and pressure
Avogadro's Law
Vi / Ni = Vf / Nf
Ideal Gas Law
A combination of Boyle's, Charles' Lawand Avagadros Law
0.0821
R=
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
atm
In the ideal gas law, pressure must be measured in what units?
liters
In the ideal gas law, volume must be measured in what units?
Kelvin
In the ideal gas law, temperature must be measured in what units?
22.4
at standard temperature and pressure the molar volume of any gas is ___
False
(T or F) Molecules in the liquid state are far apart
True
(T or F) Liquids are practically incompressible
Viscosity
The measure of a liquid's resistance to flow is called?
Surface Tension
The measure of the attractive forces exerted among molecules at the surface of the liquid
Surfactants
Substances that are added to a liquid to decrease surface tension
Evaporation
The process of conversion of liquid to gas at a temperature too low to boil
Van der Waals Forces
Physical properties of liquids are explained in terms of their intermolecular forces
Attractive forces between polar molecules
What are Dipole-Dipole Interactions?
London Forces
As electrons are in continuous motion, a nonpolar molecule could have instantaneous dipole
Hydrogen Bonds
A special type of Dipole-dipole attractions
O, N, F
Molecules that have hydrogen bonding must be directly bonded to _, _, or _.
Solid
In which state are particles highly organized in a defined fashion
True
(T or F) Solids are incompressible
Melting point
What depends on the strength of attractive forces between particles (melting point, temperature, Kinetic energy or state)
regular
Crystalline solids have a ________ or repeating structure
amorphous solids
which solids have no organized structure
Dry Ice
what is an example of a sublimation of a solid
Sublimation of Solid
what is the name of the process where the conversion of molecules in the solid state go directly to the molecules in the gaseous state
Solution
A homogenous mixture of two or more substances is called a _________?
Solute
What is the name of the component of the solution that is present in the lesser quantity?
Solvent
what i the name of the solution component present in the largest quantity. Also, does the dissolving
Aqueous
what is the solution in which water is the solvent
Gaseous
Which type of solution is "Air is the solution composed of oxygen and several trace gases that are dissolved in the gaseous solvent nitrogen"
Solid
which type of solution is "Homogenous mixtures of metals in the solid state
True solution
____ __________- A homogenous mixture with uniform properties throughout
True
(T or F) Electrolytes are good conductors of electricity
Electrolytes
______________ are made up of nonmetals and a metal
Nonelectrolytes
________________ are made up of two nonmetals
Colloidal suspensions
what consists of solute particles dispersed throughout the dispersing medium. The distribution is not completely homogenous because of the size of the colloidal particles
Tyndall Effect
The light-scattering ability of colloidal suspensions is called the _____________
Glucose
C6 H12 O6 is the formula for ______
Like dissolve like
The rule of thumb for solubility is _____ ________ ______
Saturated
A _________ solution contains all of the solute that can be dissolved at a certain temperature
True
(T or F) If a Saturated solution is cooled down, the amount of solute that the solution can hold decreases
Precipitate
The excess solute that comes out of a solutions as a ___________
Henry's Law
What law states that the number of moles of gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the pressure of that gas in the atmosphere that is in contact with the liquid
Concentration
________________ is the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution
Colligative
__________ properties are properties that depend on the concentration of the solute particles rather than the identity of the solute
Molarity
_______________ is the solute concentration is mole-based units
Osmosis
_________________ is the movement of solvent from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a semipermeable membrane
Hypotonic
When a solute concentration of fluid surrounding cells is too low it results in a ___________ solution
Hypertonic
When a solute concentration of fluid surrounding cells is higher than inside the cell it results in a ____________ solution
water
what is the universal solvent?