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By employing techniques of neutralization, even the most dedicated deviants can view themselves as conformists. T/F


Functionalists believe deviance has no useful purpose in society and only contributes to social chaos. T/F


The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail.


Crime "in the suites" (white-collar crime) actually costs the American taxpayer more in terms of dollars lost than "crime in the streets."


Sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people, including violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance.


Labeling theory, differential association theory, and control theory all represent the conflict perspective.

symbolic interactionism

The relativity of deviance is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

symbolic interactionist

Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

they are all retreatists

Based on Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?

differential association theory

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.


Functionalists would contend that the growing crime rates among women are the result of changing social classes and gender roles giving women greater access to illegitimate opportunities.

They are both used as warehouse for the unwanted.

How a society treats its deviants is one measure of how humane it is. What would an examination of prisons and mental hospitals in the United States suggest regarding this standard?

sociobiology; psychology

The two disciplines that would be MOST concerned with addressing qualities within the individual to explain deviant behavior are ________ and ________.


A serial killer has recently been convicted of the charges brought against him. In which state is he MOST likely to receive the death penalty?

Edwin Sutherland

Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.

Harold Garfinkle

The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.

Walter Reckless

The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.

techniques of neutralization

In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.

appeal to higher loyalties

When Anthony worked as a prison counselor, he would often ask property offenders why they committed the crime. The overwhelming response was, "I had to feed my family." How would Sykes and Matza classify this response?

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