76 terms

Muscles

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Biceps brachii
Origin: coracoid process, tubercle above glenoid cavity of scapula
Insertion: radial tuberosity
Action: flexes, supinates arm and forearm; flexation at the elbow
Brachialis
Origin: anterior surface of humerus
Insertion: coronoid process of ulna
Action: flexes pronated forearm
Brachioradialis
Origin: distal lateral end of humerus
Insertion: Surface of radius proximal to styloid process
Action: Flexes, supinates forearm
Buccinator
Origin: Outer surfaces of maxilla and mandible
Insertion: Orbicularis oris muscle
Action: Compresses cheeks inward as when blowing air out, retracts corner of mouth
Coracobrachialis
Origin: Coracoid process of scapula
Insertion: Medial surface of humerus
Action: Flexes, adducts upper arm; rotates upper arm medially
Deltoid
Origin: Acromion process adn spine of scapula, clavicle
Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Action: Abducts, flexes, extends upper arm
Diaphragm
Origin: Xiphoid process, ribs 7-12, lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Central tendon
Action: Enlarges thorax by depressing floor of throacic cavity during inhalation
Epicranius
Origin: Occipital bone
Insertion: Sing and muscles around eyebrows and above nose
Action: Raises eyebrows
Extensor carpi radialis
Origin: Lateral surface and lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Proximal end of second, third metacarpals
Action: Extends, abducts hand at wrist
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, ulna
Insertion: Proximal end of fifth netacarpal
Action: extends, abducts hand at wrist
External intercostals
Origin: Inferior border of ribs
Insertion: Superior border of ribs (below origin)
Action: Elevates ribs during inhalation
Flexor carpi radialis
Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Proximal end of metacarpals 1-3
Action: Flexes, abducts hand at wrist
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process of ulna
Insertion: 5th metacarpal, carpals
Action: flexes, abducts hand at wrist
Infraspinatus
Origin: Infraspinous fossa
Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
Action: Extends upper arm, roates upper arm laterally
Internal intercostals
Origin: Superior borader of ribs
Insertion: Inferior border of ribs (above origin)
Action: Depresses ribs during exhalation
Latissimus dorsi
Origin: Spinous processes of lower 6 T, all L and S vertebrae, iliac crest, ribs
Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus
Action: Extends, adducts upper arm; rotates arm medially; pulls shoulder downward, back
Levator scapulae
Origin: Transverse processes of C1-C4
Insertion: Superior meidal borderof scapula
Action: Elevates, retracts scapula
Masseter
Origin: Zygomatic arch, maxilla
Insertion: Lateral surface of mandible
Action: Elevates mandible
Orbicularis oculi
Origin: Maxilla, frontal bone
Insertion: Skin around orbit of eye
Action: Cloes eye (as in blinking or squinting)
Orbicularis oris
Origin: Muscles near mouth, maxilla, mandible, nasal septum
Insertion: Skin of central lip
Action: Draws lips together (as in kissing)
Pectoralis major
Origin: Clavicle, sternum and ribs 2-6
Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus
Action: Flexes, adducts upper arm; rotates upper arm medially
Pectoralis minor
Origin: Sternal end of ribs 3-5
Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
Action: Depresses shoulder, rotates scpula forward, raises ribs
Rhomboideus (group)
Origin: Spinous processes C7, T1-T5
Insertion: Medial border of scapula
Action: Raises, adducts, rotates scapula
Serratus anterior
Origin: Outersurface of first 8 or 9 ribs
Insertion: Ventral surface of scapula
Action: Pulls scapula forward, down; assists in elevating ribs
Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Sternum, sternal end of clavicle
Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone
Action: Pulls head to one side, flexes neck (bows head), elevates sternum
Supraspinatus
Origin: Supraspinous fossa
Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
Action: Adbucts upper arm
Subscapularis
Origin: Subscapular fossa
Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus
Action: Extends upper arm, rotates upper arm medially
Temporalis
Origin: Temporal bone
Insertion: Coronoid process, ramus of mandilble
Action: Elevates mandible
Teres major
Origin: Lateral and medial borders of scapula
Insertion: Intertubercular groove and lesser tubercle of humerus
Action: Extends, adducts, upper arm; rotates upper arm medially
Teres minor
Origin: Lateral and medial borders of scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
Action: Rotates upper arm laterally
Trapezius
Origin: Occipital bone, spinous processes of C and T vertebrae
Insertion: Spine, acromion process of scapula; acromial end of clavicle
Action: Shrugs shoulders, rotates and adducts scapula
Triceps brachii
Origin: Tubercle below glenoid fossa, posterior surface humerus
Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna
Action: Extends arm at elbow
Zygomaticus (group)
Origin: Zygomatic bone
Insertion: Orbicularis oris muscle
Action: Retracts, raises corner of mouth (as when smiling)
Adductor (group)
Origin: Pubis and pubic symphysis, ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Linea aspera and posterior surface of femur
Action: Adducts, flexes, extends thigh; rotates thigh laterally
Biceps femoris
Origin: Ischial tuberosity, linea aspera of femur
Insertion: head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia
Action: Flexes lower leg, extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
External oblique
Origin: Lower 8 ribs
Insertion: Iliac crest, linea alba
Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses contents of abdomen
Gastrocnemius
Origin: Lateral and medial condyles of femur
Insertion: Calcaneus (via calcaneal or achilles tendon)
Action: Plantar flexes foot, flexes lower leg
Gluteus maximus
Origin: Sacrum, coccyx, posterior surface of ilium
Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial band
Action: Extends thigh at hip, rotates thigh laterally
Gluteus medius
Origin: Lateral surface of ilium
Insertion: Greater trochater of femur
Action: abducts thigh, rotates thigh medially
Gluteus minimus
Origin: Lateral surface of ilium
Insertion: Greater trochater of femur
Action: abducts thigh, rotates thigh medially
Gracilis
Origin: Lower edge of pubic symphysis
Insertion: Medial surface of tibia
Action: Adducts thigh, flexes lower leg
Iliacus
Origin: Iliac fossa
Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femur
Action: Flexes thigh
Internal oblique
Origin: Iliac crest
Insertion: Lower 3-4 ribs, pubis, linea alba
Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses contents of abdomen
Peroneus (group) (a.k.a. Fibularis)
Origin: Anterior surface and head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia
Insertion: Tarsals and metatarsals
Action: Plantar flexes, dorsiflexes, everts foot
Psoas major
Origin: Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femur
Action: flexes thigh and trunk
Rectus abdominis
Origin: pubis, pubic symphysis
Insertion: ribs 5-7, xiphoid process
Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses contents of abdomen, flexes trunk
Rectus femoris
Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine, margin of acetabulum
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity (via patellar tendon, patella, and patellar ligament)
Action: Extends lower leg, flexes thigh
Sartorius
Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine
Insertion: Medial surface of tibia
Action: flexes lower leg; flexes, abducts thigh; rotates thigh laterally
Semimembranosus
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia
Action: Extends thigh, flexes lower leg, rotates leg medially
Semitendinosus
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Medial surface of tibia distal to medial condyle
Action: Extends thigh, flexes lower leg, rotates leg medially
Soleus
Origin: Head and shaft of fibula, posterior surface of tibia
Insertion: Calcaneus (via calcaneal or achilles tendon)
Action: Plantar flexes foot
Tensor fasciae latae
Origin: Anterior surface of liliac crest
Insertion: ateral tibia (via fascia of iliotibial band)
Action: Abducts, flexes thigh; rotates thigh medially
Tibialis anterior
Origin: Lateral condyle and surface of tibia
Insertion: Medial cuneiform, 1st metatarsal
Action: Dorsiflexes, inverts foot
Transversus abdominis
Origin: Lower 6 ribs, iliac crest, lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Pubis, linea alba, xiphoid process
Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses contents of abdomen
Vastus intermedius
Origin: Anterior and lateral surfaces of femur
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity (via patellar tendon, patella, and patellar ligament)
Action: Extends lower leg
Vastus lateralis
Origin: Greater trochanter, linea aspera of femur
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity (via patellar tendon, patella, and patellar ligament)
Action: Extends lower leg
Vastus medialis
Origin: Medial surface and linea aspera of femur
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity (via patellar tendon, patella, and patellar ligament)
Action: Extends lower leg
"Quadriceps" group
Rectus femoris
Vastus intermedius
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
"Hamstring" group
Biceps femoris
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
"Iliopsoas" group
Iliacus
Psoas major
Basal ganglion
Gray matter located deep within cerebral hemispheres which acts to coordinate motor information.
Cerebellum
Mass of tissue posterior to the brain stem responsible for integrating sensory information concerning body position and coordination of muscle activities.
Corpus callosum
region connecting the hemispheres of brain that allows neural signals to be transmitted from one hemisphere to the other.
Diencephalon
Region containing the thalamus, hypothalamus, optic tract, and pineal gland.
Frontal lobe
Region of cerebrum containing primary motor areas and association areas involved in higher thought processing (concentration, problem solving, planning)
Hypothalamus
Region of the diencephalon very important in the maintenance of homeostasis.
Medulla oblongata
Enlarged extension of spinal cord containing cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory control centers.
Midbrain
Region of brain stem containing reflex centers that help to maintain posture.
Occipital lobe
Region of cerebrum responsible for vision and association areas involved with imaging.
Olfactory nerve
Cranial nerve responsible for the sense of smell.
Optic nerve
Cranial nerve responsible for the sense of sight.
Parietal lobe
Region of the cerebrum responsible for the sensations of touch and temperature and association areas involved with speech and language.
Pituitary gland
Structure attached to infundibulum which releases many hormones involved with the maintenance of homeostasis.
Pons
Region of brain stem responsible for regulating respiratory rate and depth.
Temporal lobe
Region of the cerebrum responsible for hearing and association areas involved with interpretation of sensory information.
Thalamus
Region of the diencephalon that serves as a relay station for ascending neural impulses.