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What are the two types of social control?

Formal and Informal

What are two explanations of deviance?

1) Biological context (ex. abuse early in life, predictors of crime/violence)
2) Personality factors (deviance viewed as unsuccessful socialization)

Conventional Goals through normal means


Unconventional means to achieve approved goals


Accept situational means, reject goals


Define new goals and means to achieve goals


Limited legal opportunity & accessible illegal opportunity

Cloward and Ohlin

Delinquency is most common among lower-class youths because they have the least Opportunity for conventional success


Norm violations that most people take part in with little harm to self-concept

Primary Deviance

When people "make something" of another's deviant behavior

Secondary Deviance

If Karissa earned $380,000, she would be in the ________ of annual income in the United States.

Top 1 percent

As a member of the average-middle class, Aiden has built up a small amount of wealth. What would be the typical form this wealth would take?

A house and retirement account

The Census Bureau reports that, in 2009, $60,088 was the _____

Median U.S. family income

Families that are members of the upper class earn at least __________ a year. According to data provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, upper-class families represent what percentage of the total U.S. population?

$200,000, 5 percent

Liz Barthell, a single parent, earns $14,000 a year as a home health aide, which places her family among the poorest 20 percent in the United States. According to data from the U.S. Census Bureau, what percentage of all U.S. income is earned by families in the same category as Liz?

4 percent

What happens when intragenerational social mobility occurs?

Individuals change their social position during their own lifetimes

If the poorest 20 percent of the population has -1 percent of the country's wealth, what does that figure mean?

They actually live in debt

As the largest racial/ethnic minority in the United States, people of _______ ancestry have long been disadvantaged when it comes to social ranking.

Hispanic or Latino

Why is the Kennedy family considered to be part of the upper-upper class in the U.S. class system?

They are money inheritors with a long history of wealth

Why do people with lower social standing experience less confidence in everyday interactions?

They are more likely to have grown up in an atmosphere of strict supervision and discipline.

Which of the following reasons explains why the middle class has a tremendous influence on our culture?

They have a larger share of the U.S. population than any other category.

Where are the wealthiest neighborhoods typically found?

In old, exclusive parts of cities

Most of the wealth owned by the average family in the United States consists of __________

A home and a car

Which of the following traits increases the risk of being poor?

Being a single mother

Children born into rich families are more likely to die from violence during their first year of life than children born into poor families.


Single-parent families headed by women are __________ to be poor as single-parent families headed by men.

more than twice as likely

When looking at a map of the United States, where do you find the greatest density of poorer counties?

The deep south

In the U.S. class system, social position is most influenced by

being born into a particular family

Amanda teaches high school chemistry and earns about $60,000 a year, is building up her retirement account, and is paying off a mortgage for her home. Into what stratus of the U.S. class system would Amanda most likely fall?

average-middle class

Based on what you have read in the text, which of the following individuals is more likely to own a home?

Crystal, a non-Hispanic white American married woman

Compared to white-collar jobs, blue-collar jobs typically require ________ schooling.


Which of the following theoretical approaches leads us to see that the "new rich" typically engage in conspicuous consumption in order to make a statement about their social position?

symbolic-interaction approach

Why does only one-third of the population in low-income countries live in cities?

Most people farm and work on the same lands as their ancestors.

Why do we no longer use the term "Third World"?

This term lumped together more than 100 diverse countries.

Rostow would say that a low-income country such as the Republic of Mauritania is in the _______________stage of development.


What part does colonialism play in economic stratification?

It allows high-income countries to drain low-income countries' resources.

In Ethiopia, about ______ percent of births are attended to by a skilled medical professional.


Which theory asserts that high-income countries are part of the solution to global poverty, rather than part of the problem?

modernization theory

In India, traditional people who are poor generally share a sense of _______.

the importance of family

What is one of the biggest barriers that prevents women in low-income countries from gaining a higher standard of living?

Lack of birth control

In the Seeing Sociology in the News article, "The Child Catchers," Nobuhle Sishi and the other children live in poverty in _________.

South Africa

Which of the following is an example of relative poverty?

Ming sees her neighbors building a new swimming pool and is ashamed that her family is too poor to own even a car.

After World War II, the non-industrialized, poor countries of the world were labeled the _________.

Third world

Modernization theory states that ______ has been the normal state of being throughout human history.


How are low-income families in rich countries different from low-income families in the world's poorest countries?

They are far less likely to live in absolute poverty.

Most Latin American nations are considered _________ countries.


T or F. Iran is an example of a middle-income country.


Why would a country export crops while its people go hungry?

To pay off foreign debt

According to critics, dependency theory wrongly claims that _____________________.

one country cannot get richer without another one getting poorer

How do the poor in the United States compare to those in India?

In absolute terms, they have more wealth.

Why do many corporations manufacture their products in other countries?

To cut costs and increase corporate profits

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