Sports in American History ch. 5-7
Terms in this set (129)
Early Collegiate Football
Followed pattern of crew in U.S, student rivalries promoted school pride.
Rutgers & Princeton
First intercollegiate football game on November 6th, 1869. , soccer style rules and longstanding rivals in collegiate competition
Rutgers and Princeton students
student spectators and local supporters---no admission fee and wearing school colors for uniforms. Student spirited school songs. Dinner for both teams after the game. Tailgate party-Cheers!
Progressive Era Sports
Emphasis on winning. Shift from student control to faculty control and conferences. Progressive reformers respond to violence in sport.
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
Formerly know as the Inter Collegiate Amateur Athletes of America (IC4As in 1883) which controlled faculty representatives, administrative control, and in 1905 the need for rules.
Strategies to win, business practices, Survival of the fittest-strength (1870s-early 1900s) Rich, opulent, political deals, huge expansion of business, massive wealth of industrialists. Labor-management conflict, urban unrest, labor riots.
Harvard, Princeton, and Yale
What were the big three colleges that shaped collegiate football.
Yale coach and the father of American Football. He was a player, coach, and later supervisor of athletics of yale from 1888-1906. played from 1876-1882. Added many rules to football. line of scrimmage. Four downs etc. Wrote many books on football
Shaped modern rules of football-on Rules committee. Evolution of game from soccer to American football. Influenced role of Modern Athletics. Director at Yale-Gilded Age of Success
Yale vs. Harvard in the growth of football
Heated Rivalry strategies, new rules for football conferences. Walter Camp vs. Bill Reid (Harvard) in the quest to win & shaping football. Changes in equipment.
Organized violence drew increasing number of spectators, game highlighted masculinity. Game spread to the midwest to the U of M, U of Wis, by 1886 reached california.Tramp athletes going from team to team.
Deaths in football
18 deaths and 159 serious injuries occurred in 1905. in 1909 the death toll rose to 33 and casualty lists led to reforms. in 1905 Teddy Roosevelt calls a white house conference on fair play in college football. Big Three coaches. Roosevelt ="the strenuous life" =outdoor national parks leading up to football
control violence and problems, T-Roosevelt-gout rule to save football led to NCAA football dominant college sport
Emphasis on team play vs. violence lead to forward pass vs brutal tactics.
Capitalist entrepreneurs (Large Corporations)
Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, J.P Morgan, John D. Rockefeller. Politics and sports go hand in hand by both seeking profit.
Baseball, owner & sporting goods producer. Chicago White Stockings owner to rival Cinci team. projected a more acceptable middle class victorian. Forbid gambling and sunday games. Head of National League in 1882. Player in majors. Baseball Messiah.
(Father of National League) Founded the National League in 1876. President of the Chicago Whitestockings, challenged control of east coast baseball.
Business without government regulation, No unions, worker's compensation, workers insurance, etc. No income tax=no social programs. Class of rich. Business owners
Sport for wealthy at country clubs at Newport, RI
John D. Rockefeller
University of Chicago, donated $3,000,000 for a win over wisconsin in 1895 to pres. William Rainey Harper.
Amos Alonso Stagg
former Yale all-american hired at University of Chicago.
Emergence of Football
Incentives,community pride, the emphasis on winning, & gambling led to the open proffessionalism vs. amateurism of football.
President of Rose Parade committee in Pasadena offered a $3500 guarantee to meet Stanford in the first Rose Bowl game in 1902.
Progressive Era Recreation
P.A.A-Playgrounds where WASP children can play under supervision. Social control teaching obedience to authority. Middle class wanted order and (Keep off the grass) vs Working Class desire usage of park space
designed city plans incorporating open spaces for parks, playgrounds, forest preserves and waterfronts. "Chicago Model"
exclusively for elites-built in areas outside of the city. high membership fees. U.S National Golf Association (1895) U.S Open tournament. unusual because allowed minorities to play and there was a women's tournament. (John Shippen=African American, Oscar Bunn=Indian attended the open. Theodore Havenmeyer upheld open rights)
reinforcing class, Chicago's Washington Park Jockey Club- clubhouse, grandstands, railway lines, Attempts of regulating gambling-board of jockey club, New York State Racing Commission.
Back to Nature and Great Outdoors
Cities overcrowded, polluted and dirty lead to Back to Nature movement promoted outdoor activities and wilderness excursions as a way to regain health and for men to prove themselves. Adventure and danger in great outdoors to prove manliness
National Rifle Club (1858)- competitive matches, trapshooting. Boone and Crockett Club- Big game hunting and wilderness adventures.(Teddy Roosevelt part of Boone and Crockett Club) Mostly middle and upper class
Advocate of the "strenuous life". Sport and outdoors to prove manliness and courage. Rough contact sports (football) Preserved wilderness for national parks. Big game hunter. Advocate of wars to prove national courage. Rough Riders. Spanish American War. Use sport to Americanize the natives. Woodrow Wilson also huge on parks movement
Scorchers= fast riders. Safety bicycle=wheels of same size. Women had freedom of bicycle. Albert Pope manufacturer of bicycles=made them cheaper
social agencies located within immigrant neighborhoods. Hard times. mandatory schooling with phys. ed.
To promote homogeneous society, education, sport.
Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago housed 70,000, promoted sports and open space. went to Bowen park in waukegan for outdoor sports.
Physical education of Youth
college= Americans adopted European gymnastic systems to improve the fitness levels of both males & females. (PSAL=Public schools Athletic League)
invented basketball at YMCA. To give boys something to play in the winter. Indoor sport. Not as physically violent.
Created women's basketball rules. Not as physically violent. Exercise, but not exhausting. Not as physically demanding. As many players as you can, but keep passing the ball.
invented volleyball at YMCA
Emergence of Football
Football became much bigger because of Walter Camp. New rules from NCAA. People began paying colleges to come play. Also, offered money for victories.
Big powerhouse, Other schools hired players and coaches from Yale to boast programs. Yale system.
Baseball and College Football
bought over players to play to win. African Americans even brought in
Playground Association of America
call for parks and playgrounds.
Mayor William Strong
In New York city- (1896) built recreational piers. Unfortunately playgrounds for gang HQ.
Golf introduced in parks, affordable to middle class.
Scout Movement=to train boy and girl scouts to become good citizens.
American Skating Congress (1868) International Skating Union (1892)
Yale adopted this in 1893. moved swiftly in sports world. Created in Canada
Sports & Colonialism
Conquered land, U.S became power in 1900. America introuduced sports to islands. Examples= Forbes instructed a polo field & golf course at the summer capital in Baguio-promoted phys ed. Phillipines-Basketball adopted as national sport.
Japanese vs. America
Baseball rivalry throughout early 20th century. Japanese Hawaiin team traveled and beat 54 of 59 college teams
Resistance to Social Reform
Gangs in Chicago and others formed because of clubs.
Industrial programs turned into pro football teams
Each ethnic group tried to claim social status with sport.
Marker of assimilation
Benny Leonard was Jewish
Stainslaw Kiecal was the Michigan Assassin and Jewish
Marker of assimilation. Italian Ping Bodie one of First players. Honus Wagner=German Best
World Series formed in 1903.
formed western league to promote a league which allowed gambling & beer-drinking in 1901. cheaper tickets, games on Sunday.
1921 National Agreement
(1921) produced first commissioner of baseball (Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis), Czar of baseball. Provided future of commissioners
Bowling, Pool, and Saloon Culture
Brunswick organzied the American Bowling Congress (1895) Women's International Bowling Congress (1916)
Assimilation of Ethnic groups
ethnic groups were forced to assimilate and face crude laws. Sport main Assimilation for Nat. Amers. Carlisle Indian School- (1879) Frank Hudso=First Nat. Amer to be All-American
(1912 olympic team) captured the gold medals. Stripped of them because he played minor league ball for pay. Big-Time Football Player
James M. Toy
First Native American to reach the major league level. (pretended to be white)
Native Americans in Football
offered an opportunity to exhibit racial pride (Revenge)
Created the Negro National League. Owner and manager of Chicago American Giants. Negro League Baseball. Black Stars Showcase abilities
Isaac Murphy, Marshall "Mayor" Taylor, William Henry Lewis
He was Three time kentucky derby winner
He was a Big Cyclist
He was an All-American in football.
promoted athletics for women. Club in providence, RI
Federation of Women's Athletic Clubs
Annie Smith Peck
set Mountain Climbing records. climbed Mount Coropuna in Peru
Dudley Sargent & Annie Oakley
Phys. ed for women in 1881
Trick Shot Rifle
Challenged man's ideals. She swam, played baseball, golf, and field hockey. Excelled in Racket sports. Won National Tennis titles. First women to play polo.
Alice Camp & Stella Stagg
Practices notes and plays from press box. Huge impact on football
Perfect body. Idealized body
Dr. John Harvey
Battle Creek Sanitarium- medical and business concern for health. Invented Corn Flakes in 1894.
Kinetoscope in 1889=motion pictures soon followed. electric light in bars night games.
Pierre de Coubertin
more peaceful world with sports. Invented the modern Olympic games
Dr. Joesph Raycraft (Princeton Athletics)- Army
Walter Camp (Yale)-Navy
Military Academics set up baseball, football teams.
1916 creation of commission of training camp activities under the U.S War department.
Good way to give service men something to do
Walter Camp works with them to create dirk dozen exercise program. sporting skills adapted for training, prepare soldiers for combat. boxing= hand to hand combat. Baseball=throwing grenades. Track&Field = trench fighting.
Sport after WWI
Inter-allied Games held after the war for soldiers waiting to return to the U.S to keep soldiers out of trouble.
Army vs. Navy strong rivals still
Black Sox Scandal
Chicago WhiteSox. Great team. Eddie Cicotte, Joe Jackson no pay because of Reserve Clause. Threw World Series for money
The Golden Age of Sport. Media portrayed athletes as heroes. New Technology= Radio which broadcasted games. Stars sell products. Sports stars to movies. Johnny Weissmuller was an olympic swimming world champion turn movie star
first women to swim across english channel.
1932 L.A Olympics
(1932) Economic Boost to build Olympic facilities to employ workers to build venues (Jobs). Transportation in U.S. Great advertising of games. Tourism in Southwest with Native American sites and exotic places. Campaigns for visitors. See the games, but go to New Mexico, Arizona, Hollywood. First Olympic village.
U.S Olympic Champion in 1920s. Star in L.A games swimming champion. Hollywood films.
George "Babe" Ruth
Home run leader and Slugger for NYY. fans could relate to him because of his flaws-(drinking, smoking, and fat).
NYY Ruth's teammate. Remarkable career. known as the "Iron Horse". record for most games played. Horrible disease named after him
Detroit Tiger, Home run king. Challenged stereotype of weak immigrants-(Jews) Break ethnic barriers. Paves way for Jackie Robinson.
Growth of college football & new stadiums, steel, lights. Large radio audience, cars with radios.
Harold "Red" Grange
U of Illinois running back & symbolized modern college football in 1920s. "The galloping ghost". He hired an agent, Charles C. Cash and Carry Pyle. He signed contract with Chicago Bears team. Earned endorsements left college after 1925.
Notre Dame Coach. Established an undefeated season, Challenge and Catholic views. His team beat Stanford in Rose Bowl in 1925. Coach as the Star and endorsed products like the car.
claimed fame to sports leaders as Heroes.
American Pro Golfer dominated in 1920s-1930s. Won 11 professional majors. P.G.A championship a record 5 times. First American to win the British Open.
retained amateur status throughout competitive career. Grand Slam of golf in 1930. Built the Augustus golf course for the Masters tournament.
Walker and Ryder Cups
fostered Nationalism for foreign teams with golf tournaments during the 1920s.
Womens top golfer. Also, Glenna Collett achieved star status from 1922-1935
"Big" Bill Tilden
Tennis Star. Dominated the Tennis world. Drew Money to the sport. Davis Cup victories is the national tennis tournament for other countries.
Great American Tennis Star. Queen of the nets. Dress reform on courts. Powerful Tennis stroke.
French Tennis Star. Challenged traditional behaviour with tennis costume, style great media attention.
1926 international match
Lenglen beat Wills in a narrow victory. Wills retained amateur status.
"Black Babe Ruth" great hitter and catcher for the homestead grays & pittsburgh crawfords from 1931-1940s
James "Cool Papa" Bell
Played on St. Louis, on Pittsburgh Crawfords teams. Great speed. Outfielder, base running star. Maybe faster than Jesse Owens??
Leroy "Satchel" Paige
enjoyed international fame as greatest pitcher of all time. Baseball career spanned five decades. Made Major league debut with Cleveland Indians.
General Manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers devised a plan to desegregate the game. Baseballs "Great Experiment"
Signed Jackie Robinson from Kansas City Monarchs team in 1945.
Brave and courageous in WWII. refused to sit at the back of the bus coming home from WWII. Outstanding athlete.
Faced taunts, pressure of playing as the first African American in Major League baseball to continue to play (Fleetwood Walker true first African American in Baseball)
1947-1956 Brooklyn Dodger. Won Rookie of the Year Award in 1949. Lead Dodgers to 6 National League championships. Withstood nasty racial slurs.
First Black Player in American League. Hired by Cleveland Indians. Boston Redsox became last team to integrate in 1959. Success of Black Baseball continued with a lot of MVPs.
Industrial League teams in basketball, bowling, softball for working class women, sponsored by companies.
1928 Olympics for Women
1st official track & Field competition for women. 800 meter disaster-controversy. distance for females and gender concerns in intense competition claims of exhaustion. Women not finishing race, exaggerated by media, out cry about women in olympic track. 800 meter dropped until 1960.
Mildred "Babe" Didrikson
Amazing Women Athlete who was an All-American on national AAU basketball team from 1930-32. Star of 1932 L.A. Olympics. Gold medals in track & field for 80 meter hurdlers, the javelin throw with world record. Silver in High Jump. As a golfer drew attention to women's golf tour. she won 34 tournaments, 17 in a row (1946-1947). Her and Patty Berg helped to organize the Ladies Professional Golf Association
famous discus thrower in 1932 olympics to win gold and shot putter.
1936 Berlin Olympics
Nazi Olympics, Olympic Boycott movement in U.S vs. Nazi olympics. discrimination, Anti-Semitism, racism. Seek fair play. Avery Brundage was the American Olympic president who campaigned against boycott. Olympic flame first introduce along with Parade of Nations.
African American triumphs winning 4 gold medals. Ohio State star. 400m Relay great controversy in U.S. Coach substituted him & Ralph Metcalfor for jews Sam Stoller & Marty Glickman who were the originals to run. Avery Brundage didn't want Hitler more embarrassed with other minorities winning.
Success but racism in the U.S. The AAU denied him the Sullivan Award in 1936, denied access to hotels in NY for team celebration.
Womens All American Professional Baseball League
formed for fans and keeps baseball. Wrigley started league feminine, gender concern "Charm School" players in skirts.
Golden Glove bouts gain start. Beat Italian Carnera. Fought Max Schmeling (German Nazi) twice. Lost in 1936. Boxing rematch knocked out schmeling in 1938. Radio listeners. Huge moment in sports history.
working class heavyweight champion. "Manass Mauler" knocked down then champion Jess Willard
Skillfully promoted Dempsey into a boxing Sensation. Helped to make Madison Square Garden into huge sports center.
"White man's burden"
Idea that white Europeans/Americans have "better" more civilized way of life. View other peoples as savages & ignorant. think that they have the burden to civilize others. Imperialism. Missionaries, YMCA's and American officials tried to make conquered peoples accept WASP values.
1904 St.Louis Olympic Games
joined with the 1904 world's fair. Washington University for facilities of Olympics. First in U.S.. 651 athletes competed from 12 nations. U.S vs U.K., very few international athletes. Archery (Women's only sport they could do), swimming, boxing, tug-o-war. track and field. The "Savage Olympics". ethnic groups compared to white athletes; unfair, racist. reinforced ideas of white supremacy.
1908 London Games
Longest Olympics ever at 6 months. T. Roosevelt created an American National team for medal counts. Irish Amers refuse to dip Amer flag for Englands king Edward the 7th. English officials disqualify American athletes to promote British athletes. Runner Dorando Pietri is helped across the finish line. IOC uses multiple judges from nations
World's Strongest man, published "Physical Culture" Magazine. Proponent of women in sport fitness.
won the triple crown of Women's golf. toured east coast and Midwest with golf guests.raised money for the Red Cross by playing exhibition matches.
Mother of Women's swimming. Promoted equality and held suffrage events. Led many women's Olympic swimming teams to victory.Maccabiah Games were the Jewish Olympics.
"Galveston Giant" First African American World Heavyweight Champion. Banned fight footage when he beat Jim Jeffries. Fought Jim Jeffries in Reno, NV. Lead to Mann Act.
First African American to play in the Rose Bowl, First African American head coach and QB.
Players' National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs
Popularly known as the Players League, short-lived but star-studded. Emerged from the Brotherhood of Professional Base-Ball a.k.a the sport's first player's Union.
John Montgomery Ward
Led the Brotherhood of Professional Base-Ball and formed the Players' National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs
When a players contract expire, their rights were retained by the team to which he had been signed. Prevented players equal rights in sports
One of the first superstars of baseball. First to tally over 3,000 hits. Big racist and huge part into promoting segregation of baseball.
Moses Fleetwood Walker
The first African American to play Major League Baseball
League/Team owners agree not to hire African Americans
Tried to abolish football at the college level.
Banned the game for a time because didn't like injuries, and wanted academics to be first.
Chicago Hebrew Institute
trained jewish men and women to compete in sports. Olympic athletes.
sport as a way to improve peoples lives. promotion to immigrants and working class. examples are Hull House in Chicago with Jane Addams. settlement houses with (YMCA/YWCA) and (YMHA/YWHA) with Playgrounds, supervised and play which teaches obedience, teamwork.
Founded the Public School Athletic League (PSAL) for both girls and boys. YMCA in high schools. Sports in high schools.
Exercise for women, adaptation; new rules for some sports. Women's collegiate sport.
John L. Sullivan
Boston Strong Boy was the first heavyweight champion of gloved boxing and also the last champion of bare-knuckle boxing.
Mike "King" Kelly
player who did many tricks and drank. He called for a fly ball when he was in the dugout and caught it. A.G. spalding traded him the the boston red sox because he didn't like his drinking.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Hist Test 2 Notes
America Through Baseball Exam 2
M333 Exam 1
Chapter 18 Apush Vocab 1880-1917
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Lab Safety Quiz
Sports in American History ch. 8-9
Sports in American Culture
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Impact of Sports in American History Unit One
Sports in american history