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substantive defense

legal position that disproves, justifies, or otherwise excuses an alleged crime

plea bargaining

accused person admitting guilt to a less serious crime in exchange for having a more serious charge dropped


use of force that appears to be reasonably necessary to the victim to prevent death, serious bodily harm, rape, or kidnapping


punishable offense against society

contempt of court

action that hinders the administration of justice


crime punishable by either a fine of more that $1,000 or by confinement for more than a year in a state prison or by death

vicarious criminal liability

substituted criminal liability


freedom from prosecution even when one has committed the crime charged


any penalty provided by law and imposed by a court


crime punishable by confinement in a county or city jail for less than one year, by fine or both

procedural defense

a criminal defense based on how the evidence was obtained or how the accused was arrested, questioned or tried


an individual who helped in a car jacking in which someone was killed by another car jacker can be charged with murder


unlawfully offering or giving anything of value to influence performance of an official is called


Ben is convicted and sentenced to two to five years in jail. The crime he has commited is a


immunity is never granted to someone who has committed the crime


a reasonable ground for belief is referred to as probable cause


falsely making or materially altering a writing to defraud another is called

white collar crimes

typically offenses committed in the business world are called


legally a crime is considered an offense against

substantive defense

self-defense is a

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