198 terms

ICT Final


Terms in this set (...)

(computer science) the part of a computer (a microprocessor chip) that does most of the data processing
An organized collection of information.
a small digital computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time
-individual, brief-case sized computers
-easily transported / connected to networks
portable devices
Devices that are compact and portable and often enable wireless high-speed broad band access, including laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), gaming consoles, mobile phones.
main frame
the historical name given to a large computer system characterized by its large size, high cost, and high performance.
super computer
Gigantic computers that can fill a building or building foor. Supercomputers are used for large scale research and for breaking cryptographic codes. They are mostly owned by the governments and large educational institutions. With the increase of computing power seen in PCs and the growth of distributed computer networks, supercomputers have seen a large decline in popularity.
embedded computer
A tiny computer embedded in a product and designed to perform specific tasks or functions for that product.
games consoles
A speicialised interactive entertainment computer
an input device that enters data with letters, numbers, symbols, and special function keys.
a hand-operated electronic device that controls the coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a pad
tracker ball
This is another alternative to a mouse. It looks like a mouse, but instead of moving the mouse you move a ball to control to cursor.
a manual control consisting of a vertical handle that can move freely in two directions
graphics tablet
An input device that can use a stylus to hand draw. It works like a pencil on the tablet and uses a USB port.
an electronic device that generates a digital representation of an image for data input to a computer
digital camera
a camera that encodes an image digitally and store it for later reproduction
a digital camera designed to take digital photographs and transmit them over the internet
device for converting sound waves into electrical energy
touch screen,
A touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen. Instead of using a device such as a stylus, you can use your finger to point directly to a selection on the screen.
Technology in which the computer analyzes a document for marks made with a pencil, pen, or marker that it can detect, and then compares those marks with an answer sheet read in previously - i.e. a scantron test
Optical Character Recognition is software that converts text scanned as a graphic into text a word processing program can use.
bar code scanner
Device that reads the special lines of bar codes. Can be used to track documents in litigation or physical objects such as office furniture and equipment.
biometric scanner,
This is a pattern recognition system which makes an identification based on biological characteristics. They can use face recognition, fingerprint matching, iris and retinal scans, voice recognition and hand geometry.
magnetic stripe reader
reads the magnetic stripe on the back of credit cards, entertainment cards, bank cards, and other similar cards
chip and pin
Systems designed to reduce credit card fraud by requiring the user to authenticate themselves at the point of sale.
a device that enables digital machines to monitor a physical qauntity of the analog world, such as temperature, humidity, or pressure, to provide data used it robotics, evironmental climate control, and other applications.
Storage Device
External hardware used to store and retrieve data, such as a disk drive, CD/DVD drive, flash drive, or tape drive
(computer science) the part of a computer (a microprocessor chip) that does most of the data processing
Computer chips that store data and programs while the computer is working; often called RAM or Random Access Memory
(computer science) memory whose contents can be accessed and read but cannot be changed
the most common computer memory which can be used by programs to perform necessary tasks while the computer is on
hard disks
A data storage unit inside a computer that can store a large quantity of data (60GB or more), but cannot easily be removed from the computer.
optical discs
portable storage medium that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer written and read by a laser
flash memory
sometimes called "flash ram"; is solid-state memory that can be erased and reprogrammed; gets its name because the microchip is organized so that a section of memory cells are erased in a single action or "flash"
magnetic tape
memory device consisting of a long thin plastic strip coated with iron oxide
Output devices
any device capable of displaying information from a computer such as the monitor and printer. Devices that enable the computer to give the user the results of the processed data.
display consisting of a device that takes signals from a computer and displays them on a CRT screen
(computer science) an output device that prints the results of data processing
an instrument (usually driven by a computer) for drawing graphs or pictures
data projector
is a device that takes the text and images displaying on a computer screen and projects them on a larger screen so that the audience can see the image clearly
An output device that allows you to hear voice, music, and other sounds from your computer.
Device used to generate signals that make devices move, A device that transfers fluid or electrical energy into mechanical energy.
(computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory
Systems software
A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.
operating system
Also known as an "OS," this is the software that communicates with computer hardware on the most basic level. Without an operating system, no software programs can run.
software tools
A programm/application that helps you to write, maintain, debug, or support software. it has a GUI to offer easy access to the user. It shows errors and suggests solutions how to correct them. The user can let the software show the output.
Applications software
Also called productivity software; helps you perform a specific task, such as word processing, spreadsheets, and so forth.
productivity tools
A software program that can increase the productivity of the user;examples include word processors, database management systems, spreadsheets, and graphic packages
web authoring
Provides easy-to-use tools for the composition of the text for a web-page
presentation software
programs used to create graphic presentations with visual aids, handouts, slides, etc; or for creating text with graphics, audio, and/or video
control software
software used to programme robots and devices with instructions so that they can act remotely or automatically
project management software
an application program, such as Microsoft Project, that helps project managers generate charts and tables used to manage aspects of a project.
Storage capacity
the maximum amount of data that can be stored on a storage medium
a unit of measurement of information (from Binary + digIT)
a sequence of 8 bits (enough to represent one character of alphanumeric data) processed as a single unit of information
File Size is measured in, 1000 bytes
Loosely, 1 million bytes of data. Technically, it is 1,048,576 bytes of data, which is 2 raised to the 20th power.
measure a computer's storage capacity. One gigabyte equals 1,000 megabytes
1,000,000,000,000 bytes, A thousand gigabytes
range of software facilities
refers to the tools and hardware available for the user from a particular computers system.
..., ability to do many things, ability to do many things
speed of transmission
refers to the rate at which computers transmit data and communicate with each other.
..., The ability to work with another program or hardware device.
..., measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
..., Links multiple computer systems and enables them to share data and resources
..., a network that are connected using Ethernet cables such as CAT5
..., a communication system based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves
..., a local computer network for communication between computers
..., a computer network that spans a wider area than does a local area network
Network components
..., Device, Media, Network Adapter, Network Operating System, and Protocol.
..., a conductor for transmitting electrical or optical signals or electric power
..., (computer science) a device that forwards data packets between computer networks
..., something that increases the power of effectivenessof a system or device
wireless devices
..., devices that use wireless communications technology (e.g. microwave) to send and receive voice and digital data.
..., a local area network that uses high frequency radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances of a few hundred feet
..., A wireless technology that uses short-range radio frequency transmissions.
media streaming devices
IP address
..., The numerical address of a computer on the Internet ad defined by the Internet Protocol(IP). An IP address takes the form of a dotted quad: four numbers between 0 and 255 separated by periods. For example, is a valid IP address whereas is not.
benefits of establishing a network
...shared peripherals, shared data, flexible access, media streaming, communication,control of user access rights, centralised administration, simultaneous access to the internet, data can be secured on a network
Network security
log-ins and passwords, firewall,WEP/WPA, encryption, file access rights, file access rights, transaction logs, backups
..., (computing) a security system consisting of a combination of hardware and software that limits the exposure of a computer or computer network to attack from crackers
..., two main types of wireless security, Wired Equivalent Privacy, an encryption algorithm used to protect data on Wi-Fi Networks, Wireless security protocol version 2. A higher level security than WEP, with better encryption. The WAP encrypts all wireless traffic, prevents access by devices that do not know the code.
..., Process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access.
file access rights
..., Placing restrictions on files that allow them to only be accessed by certain individuals
transaction logs
..., Every transaction that the system processes should be recorded on a transaction log, like a journal. (1) It is a permanent record of transactions although the file is typically temporary (once a batch is processed it is deleted to make room for a new batch). (2) And not all records are processed correctly, so this log only contains successful transactions.
..., copies of files that can use to replace the originals if they are lost or damaged
-two types of files need backups: program files and data files
-can reside on online sites, local drives, and network servers
..., (from a combination of MOdulate and DEModulate) electronic equipment consisting of a device used to connect computers by a telephone line
..., (computer science) a device that forwards data packets between computer networks
..., A computer or other device that connects networks.
communication link
..., a kind of technology that lets people who are far apart share information instantly
web browser
..., software designed for locating and viewing information stored on the Internet. Common browsers include Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
communication software
..., Software that enables computers to interact with each other over a phone line or other network.
..., of or relating to or being a communications network in which the bandwidth can be divided and shared by multiple simultaneous signals (as for voice or data or video)
..., Connecting to the internet via a phone line
..., A virtual private network (VPN) is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network.
Sources of services
..internet service provider (ISP), worldwide web, email, news groups, forums, chatrooms
internet service provider (ISP)
..., a company that provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet along with additional related services, such as website building, instant messaging, search engines, filter software, e-commerce, e-advertising, e-news, online entertainment, communication, socialising, customer support, software distribution
worldwide web
..., communications network enabling the linking of computers worldwide for data interchange; the internet
..., (computer science) a system of world-wide electronic communication in which a computer user can compose a message at one terminal that is generated at the recipient's terminal when he logs in
news groups
..., A set of electronic bulletin boards available on the Internet. Postings are continuously circulated around the network as people add comments.
..., Online areas where users can post messages to each other.
..., Chatrooms are areas on the Internet where users can communicate using text messages in real time. Chat servers can be accessed using an IRC client which allows you to select different discussion areas which you can join or leave.
instant messaging
..., message service."communications protocol that allows text messages over cell phone.
search engines,
..., Any program that locates information in a database or locate information on the Internet.
software filter
..., This is not a firewall, but allows administrators to restrict content access from within the network. It's essentially a set of scripts that restrict user access to certain networking protocols/Internet locations.
..., Business conducted electronically (buying/selling on web)
..., banner ads, links or advertiser sponsorships that appear in e-mail newsletters, e-mail
marketing campaigns and other commercial e-mail communications. Includes all types
of electronic mail (e.g., basic text or HTML-enabled).
..., News available in electronic form, e.g. on the Web, or specifically for mobile devices.
e learning
..., delivery of formal and informal training and educational materials, processes, and programs via the use of electronic media
entertainment online
..., the process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation, group interaction, or public speaking
..., the act of meeting for social purposes on-line facebook twitter
customer support
..., systems that automate service requests, complaints, product returns, and information requests
software distribution
..., Automatically transferring a file or installing an application from the server to a client on the network.
..., a network designed for the exclusive use of computer users within an organization that cannot be accessed by users outside the organization, Know the facilities and services - workfiles, share documents - company wide, internal noticeboards, central repository for information such as staff directory and forms
ICT Positive effects:
flexible/mobile working
better access to information and services
new job opportunities
new skills requirements
new ways of learning
wider range of entertainment and leisure opportunities
ICT Negative effects
potential job losses, less social interaction, reduced physical activity
Impact on organizations
improved communication, access to global markets, changes in the way information is managed and used, security issues
impact of ICT on individuals, organisations and society
social and moral effects of unrestricted internet access, widening gap between information rich and information poor
Digital Divide
legal issues relating to use/misuse of ICT and the
constraints placed on individuals
data protection, computer crime, fraud, copyright
legal constraints on the use of information
Constraints: use of personal data, music downloads, acknowledgement of sources, avoiding plagiarism, getting permission
interface features
desktop, windows, dialogue box, menu, sub-menu, toolbar, scrollbar, drag and drop, zoom, minimise, maximise
elect and use interface features and system
facilities effectively to meet needs
template, wizard
Health issues
ergonomic furniture, adjustable seating, appropriate lighting, taking breaks, wrist rests and other devices
Understand the need to create a safe working environment
arrangement of hardware and cables, avoid hazards
potential risks to data and personal information
Risks: accidental deletion, deliberate damage, for example viruses, unauthorized
Data security
create backups, keep copies safe, keep password/PIN secret, regularly change password
Virus protection:
use virus-checking software, treat files from unknown sources with caution
methods available to secure data and personal
Prevention of unauthorized access: for example firewalls, encryption, ad ware, spyware
Stay safe and respect others when using ICT-based
Staying safe: avoid inappropriate disclosure of personal information/disclosure to unauthenticated sources, avoid misuse of images, use appropriate language, respect confidentiality, use copy lists with discrimination, use social networking sites with caution
Be able to select and use appropriate sources of ICT based and other forms of information which match requirements
ICT-based: CDs, DVDs, text messages, podcasts, web logs, web-based reference sites. Others: newspapers, books, images, maps, conversations
select information that matches requirements from
a variety of sources and evaluate fitness for purpose
Fitness for purpose: recognise intention and authority of provider, currency of the information, relevance, bias
use appropriate search techniques and queries to
locate and select relevant information
echniques: multiple search criteria, quotation marks, search within results, relational operators,logical operators, 'find' or search tool including wildcards
select and use software applications to meet
needs and solve problems
Software applications: word processing, spreadsheet, database, graphics, web authoring, presentation, audio and video editing software
Be able to enter, organise, develop, refine and format information, applying editing techniques to meet needs
Organised: structure of information, document layout,headings, sub-headings, lists, tables, use of templates
Edit: highlight, drag and drop, find, replace, undo, redo, templates
Be able to use appropriate page layout.
Layout: columns, margins, header, footer, portrait, landscape, page breaks, page numbering. Format text: bullets, numbering, sub-numbering, alignment, tabs, line spacing, colour, font, style, size, tables
enter and format text and tables to maximize clarity
and enhance presentation
Format tables: horizontal and vertical text alignment, merge and split cells, gridlines, borders, shading
Be able to obtain, insert, size, crop, alter and position images
Images: clipart, photographs, scanned images, borders
Data types
used to control how data in a particular field will be searched, sorted, or used in calculations. The default format is text or numbers
Worksheet Formating
currency, %, number of decimal places, date, time, text wrap, row height, column width, grid-lines, merged cells, cell borders
Formulae are used to perform operations on numbers. A formula must start with an equal sign. Single operator, formulae with multiple operators, absolute and relative cell referencing
A prewritten formula that provides a shortcut to common calculations. SUM, AVG, IF THEN
Spreadsheet additional functions:
Additional features: linked tables, macros
Be able to enter, format, develop and analyse numerical information
Graphs and charts: pie chart, bar chart, single line graph, scattergram, appropriate format, titles, axis labels, legend
data types:
used to control how data in a particular field will be searched, sorted, or used in calculations. The default format is text. logical/Boolean, alphanumeric/text, numeric (real and integer), date
Data structure
(computer science) the organization of data (and its storage allocations in a computer) record, field, table, primary key/key field, related tables
What are the rules that a user must follow when entering data into a table? range check, presence check, type check, length check
range check
..., A type of data validation used in databases to ensure that a value entered falls within a specified range (such as requiring a person's age to fall in a range of between 1 and 120).
presence check,
..., This validation rule specifies if an attribute can be left blank or if it must contain a value.
type check
..., A validation technique which checks to see if data is of a certain type such as text or date
length check
..., Validation technique. Number of characters that can be stored in a field.
Sorting data
allows the user to control the order in which the data is presented in the worksheet or database. single field, multiple fields, ascending/descending order
Data Input
The process of entering data into a computer system into tables and forms
database object that lets you ask the database about the information it contains: single criterion, multiple criteria, search within results, relational operators, logical operators
Database Outputs
report, mail merge documents
Types of information
image, chart, text alignment, captions
Organise: text wrap, use of text boxes, behind, in front, grouping, animation, slide transition
Be able to bring together and organise different types of information to achieve a purpose
Purpose: poster, newsletter, web page, leaflet, multi-media presentation
Be able to work accurately and proofread, using software facilities where appropriate for the task
Software facilities: spellcheck, grammar check, print preview
Be able to produce information that is fit for purpose and audience using accepted layouts and conventions as appropriate
Layouts: letter, memo, report, newsletter, leaflet, poster, web page, information sheet, multimedia presentation
Conventions: salutation, complimentary close on letters, page numbers, headers and footers on reports, columns, date, issue number on newsletters
Know how to create, access, read and respond to email and other ICT-based communication
Email: open, read, reply, forward, to, cc, bcc, add and open attachments
e able to evaluate the effectiveness of solutions
Effectiveness: assessing fitness for purpose, suggesting improvements
Someone committed to circumvention of computer security.
Someone who finds weaknesses in a computer or computer network, though the term can also refer to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks.
Computer misuse
Any illegal action that involves a computer and a network.
a computer program that can replicate itself[1] and spread from one computer to another. The term is also commonly, but erroneously, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability.
A standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself. This is due to security shortcomings on the target computer. Unlike a computer virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program.
A type of malware that masquerades as a legitimate file or helpful program possibly with the purpose of granting a hacker unauthorized access to a computer.
Anti-virus software
A software used to prevent, detect and remove malware (of all descriptions), such as: computer viruses, worms, trojan horses, keyloggers, etc.
It is the time it takes a message to get from the source to the destination.

It is measured in seconds, or for a fast network today, in milliseconds. There are 1000 milliseconds in 1 second.
It is the amount of information that can be transmitted per unit of time. It does not consider the start up time to get the first bit across, but the amount of information that can be got across once the first bit has arrived. In other words, it's the rate at which information is transferred.

It is measured in units of [information/time], such as bits per second. On the Internet it is often measured in Mbps which is megabits per second.
It is the smallest unit of information. They are directly related to bandwidth, which is a measure of the amount of information that can be sent. Bandwidth is measured in [answer] per second, each bit being a yes/no question — 0s and 1s. Those 0s and 1s could be encoding a string of text, like in a web page, or an image.
It is a set of rules, that people agree to, which determines how two entities can talk to each other. For the web, the [answer] gives rules about how a client and a server talk to each other.
Data redundancy
It occurs in database systems which have a field that is repeated in two or more tables.
Data integrity
Is when data is correct.
Data validation
It is the process of ensuring that a program operates on clean, correct and useful data.
Data verification
It is a process wherein the data is checked for accuracy and inconsistencies.
Updating data
Bringing data up to date/recording data.
Flat-file database
This type of database stores all of its information in one table. While this type of database is still used to store smaller amounts of information, it is not a good solution for larger information stores.
Relational Database
A database that represents data as a collection of tables in which all data relationships are represented by common values in related tables
Primary key
The field selected as a unique identifier for the database.
Foreign key
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
Data integrity
Accuracy and consistency of data values in the database
It is the time it takes a message to get from the source to the destination.

It is measured in seconds, or for a fast network today, in milliseconds. There are 1000 milliseconds in 1 second.
It is the amount of information that can be transmitted per unit of time. It does not consider the start up time to get the first bit across, but the amount of information that can be got across once the first bit has arrived. In other words, it's the rate at which information is transferred.

It is measured in units of [information/time], such as bits per second. On the Internet it is often measured in Mbps which is megabits per second.
It is the smallest unit of information. They are directly related to bandwidth, which is a measure of the amount of information that can be sent. Bandwidth is measured in [answer] per second, each bit being a yes/no question — 0s and 1s. Those 0s and 1s could be encoding a string of text, like in a web page, or an image.
It is a set of rules, that people agree to, which determines how two entities can talk to each other. For the web, the [answer] gives rules about how a client and a server talk to each other.
laws forbidding unauthorised copying of created works (music, films, books, software).
Pirated software
is copied illegally and sold, depriving software companies of income. Also no guarantee of its quality (could have inserted viruses) and no support.
unauthorised access to a computer or network to steal, change or spy on data. Hackers face prison or heavy fines if caught.
Computer virus
a program deliberately written to copy itself and pass between computers usually over a network. They often damage a computer system deliberately or just take up more and more memory. Worms can spread over a network by themselves, Trojans come disguised as useful programs or games.
Protection against hacking and viruses
lock network control centres, secure user names and passwords, install and keep up to date anti-virus software (recognises and quarantines virus code), install a firewall (stops unrequested intrusions from the outside of a network).
Effects of IT on patterns of employment
fewer manual jobs in manufacturing (e.g. car spraying), more technical jobs (design, programming, support, etc.). Work is safer and not as physical. Communication faster with less need for travel.
Effects of microprocessor-controlled devices in the home
leisure time (washing, cooking, etc. automated so more leisure time for digital music, video, games, etc.), social interaction (more contact at a distance with friends and relations, easier to meet people with similar interests, but less face-to-face interaction), need to leave the home (shopping and chatting online means less travel, life is easier for disabled people).
ssues relating to information found on the internet
unreliability (many contributions e.g. Wikipedia could make it unreliable so always check more than one source and investigate source's background), undesirability (violence, racism, pornography and abusive material could be accessed by young or vulnerable people), laws about libel also cover the internet but harder to trace the sources, security of data transfer -(data e.g. financial transactions may be intercepted by criminals as it passes over the internet, so verify your system uses encryption - https in the address bar and do not fall victim to phishing - e-mails supposedly from your bank asking for PIN etc.
Potential health problems related to the prolonged use of ICT equipment
RSI - repetitive strain injury (wrist and hand pain from long mouse use), back problems - from poor posture, eye problems - from poor lighting conditions and simple strategies for preventing these problems: change mouse hands, take regular breaks, sensible posture and furniture, consult medial advice, focus on far away objects occasionally, stop when you are uncomfortable.
Safety issues related to using computers
electrical cables to be tripped over, overloading power sockets (too many plugs), heat-stroke in computer rooms, food and drink split on computer equipment and measures for preventing accidents: cables covered by conduit, wireless networking, no food or drink near the computers, inspection by qualified electricians.