64 terms

(Alfred) Early church 100-600

STUDY
PLAY
What was the Patristic Period
I.) Events:
1. Councils of Nicea, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon,

2. the Battle of the Milvian Bridge,

3. the Edict of Milan

4. Creeds: The Apostles', Nicene, and Chalcedonian Creeds

II. )Theological developments:
1. Development of the doctrines of the Trinity, 2. the person of Christ,
3. and the doctrine of salvation

III.) Personages:
Polycarp, Justin, Cyprian, Tertullian, Irenaeus, Augustine, Pelagius, Clement, Jerome.
Who was Simeon the stylite?
(c.390-459) Saint Simeon Stylites or Symeon the Stylite became a anchorite in his teens, spent 20 years in monasteries in N syria. He was a Syriac ascetic saint who achieved fame (started in 423) for living 36 years on a small platform on top of a pillar near Aleppo .

his first pillar was 10 ft tall, but then progressed to sixty feet from the ground.
Who is Cyprian?
C. 200-258

Bishop of Carthage. 3rd-4th century bishop of Carthage who was involved in the controversy surrounding whether or not to readmit to the church those who had denied the faith under persecution. He ruled that those who denied only after much torture could be readmitted. His most famous saying: "There is no salvation outside the church."

Wrote:
Unity of the Church
De Lapsis

Martyred by Valerian.
Who were the Apostolic Fathers
1. clement of Rome****
2. Ignatius****
3. Hermas
4. Barnabas of Alexandria
5. Papias
6. PolyCarp*****
Who was clement of Rome?
1st - 2nd / 30-100c.

century bishop of Rome who wrote a letter to Corinth, and is mentioned in Philippians 4:3.

Was considered the 4th pope, by RCC.

Was Martyred under Domitian.

Wrote 1 Clement - which it stresses apostolic succession.
Who was Ignatius of Antioch?
2nd century / D. 117c.

: bishop of Antioch who wrote a series of letters to churches in Asia Minor on his way to Rome for martyrdom.

Writings
1. to the ephesians
2. to the magnesians
3. to the trallians
4. to the Romans
5. to the Phiadelphians
6. to the Smyrnaeans
7. to Polycarp.

- He was first to distinguish between bishops and elders.
- opposed Gnostic heresies.
- Was martyred under Trajan (111-113 c.)
WHo was Polycarp of Smyrna?
2nd century / c. 69-160:

bishop of Smyrna, disciple of John, early Christian Martyr,
- wrote an Epistle to the Philippians.
- He compiled and preserved epistles of Ignatius.
- is claimed to confront Marcion as "the firstborn of Satan

- Was martyed under Antoninus Pius.
WHo is Ireneaus of Lyons?
*(120/40 -200)*

2nd century bishop of Lyons,
He studied under Polycarp. Was a missionary and apologist.

** Writings
1. Against Heresies - against Gnosticism.
2. On the unity of God and the Origin of evil.
What is the term Logos mean to greek philosophy?
1. Heraclitus (c. 500 B.C.) conceived the Logos as Pantheistically as the universal reason penetrates everything.

*This is not just reason, but the intuitive nature that we already have in us to make sens of the world. For Example, "we don't try to walk through walls."

2. The stoics took it and made it the "rational Principle inhabiting and governing the universe.

3. Plato's teaching on the eternal forms, came with the ideas of the logos as an immanent power underwent development.

4. Philo, influenced by Plato thought of the logos as an intermediary agent between God and the world.

Christianity:
- John, made this connection with Jesus the "logos" that enlitens all mankind John 1:9.

- Justin Martyr argues this same thought, saying this logos that the Greeks talk about is Christ. The seed of the word "Logos spermatikos" is in all men pointing them to God's laws.
Who is Justin Martyr?
(c. 100-165).

2nd century apologist who wrote 2 apologies and

I.) ***Writings.***
1. "Dialogue with Trypho," defending the Christian faith in terms that were acceptable to Greek philosophy by synthesizing it with Platonism. Trypho was a jew.

2. Against Heresies - which was against Marcion.

II.) ***What he was and did.****
1. He personally opposed Marcion

2. Developed Concept of Logos spermatikos - Logos is a principle of rationality that directs course of the univers and makes it accessible to human reason. Christ is this source of knowledge. He is the Logos that the greeks talk about. (Fram w/philo & Theo, p. 91)

Now the seed of the Logos is in the soul of man and which accounts for the truths of the universe known even to pagan philosophy: Meaning Romans 1, God writes the law on our hearts. (dic of latin terms p. 285)

3. Argued for christianity on basis of prophecy, miracles, and ethics.

***Beheaded in Rome. ***
Valentinus / Gnostic Heresy
He is a prominent Gnostic. Irenaeus names him to be the author of the work Gospel of truth.

His critics Irenaeus, clement, Tertullian, and Epiphanius.
Tatian
- 110-172:

He was a Christian apoligist, who latter on his life became a Gnostic. He lived from

- Was a pupil of Justin Martyr. He defended the faith against pagan miss-interpretations.

- He founded the Encratites = in the Greek it means, "self-control." it was a sect of very strict ascetic practices. It was influenced by Gnosticism, where they would reject wine, meat, repudiate marriage. They were no necessary heretical, but were always in the danger of going too far.

- His work Diatessaron - a liturical book in the syrian church til the fifth century.
Tertullian (Language, key parameters of Trinity)
c. 160-220:

2nd - 3rd century theologian, wrote Apology and Against Marcion, wrote about the Trinity,

*became a Montanist later in his life.

He developed doctrine and coined the phrases

- the name of the "Trinity."

1. The trinity = "One substance and three persons."

2. Christ = "one person" and "two substances" or "natures"

p.77 Gonzalez v1
Constantine
280-337 Ad.

4th century Emperor who legalized Christianity and called the Council of Nicaea.
Eusebius of Cesarea
**(C. 263-339)**

3rd - 4th century bishop of Caesarea who wrote the first church history.
Known as father of church history.
Was friend and advisor of Constantine.

Wrote
- Ecclesiastical History
- Life of Constantine.
Athanasius
C. 296-373:

4th century theologian who opposed Arianism.

Was the most noted defender of trinitarian orthodoxy.

His writings:
- On the incarnation of the divine word.
- Against Apollinarius
- Life of Anthony.
John Chrysostom
C. 374-407:

4th - 5th century bishop of Constantinople
* Chrysostom, his nickname, means "Golden Mouth"
* He was the greatest preacher of ancient chruch.
* He was a son of a Roman office
* He stessed ethical applications in sermons.

exiled by empress Eudoxia, He died in exile.

He wrote:
- On the Priesthood
- Homilies
Antony
3rd & 4th cent, (251-356):

He was a pioneer of anchoritic monasticism. Which is a person who becomes a hermit in order to triumph over the flesh by prayer, contemplation, and mortification. He was born at Coma in the middle of Egypt.
Ambrose
4th Cent. (339-397):

He was the biship of Milan. His act of Biship was to distribute his great wealth among the poor. He was and outstanding preacher and and teacher.

He was a brave man. He once told Emperor Theodosius to repent for his mass kill of people and if he did not then he would refuse the sacraments.

He works against heresy are:
-De Fide,
- De Spiritu Sancto
- De Mysteriis.

He influenced monasticism in Italy.
Jerome
345-420 Ad.

: 4th- 5th century theologian who translated the Latin Vulgate.

good translation.

4th-5th century scholarly monk in Rome who translates the Bible into Latin (Vulgate). Though he translated them, he indicated that the Apocryphal books were not Scripture.
Augustine
354-430 AD:

4th - 5th century bishop of Hippo, who was one of the most influential theologians in the history of the church. Wrote many works, including Confessions and City of God.

• In opposition to the Manichaens, Donatists and Pelagians, Augustine taught that salvation
was only by the grace of God, emphasizing original sin, divine election and baptismal
regeneration.
Sketch a brief history of Augustine's life?
- Dates: 354-430 AD

- Born to a Christian mother, Monica

- Tried various philosophies (Manichaeism), lived a sensual life.

- hears Ambrose preach, and begins to reconsider Christian faith not to be for uneducated idiots.

- Reads Life of Antony, and is converted as he is reading Scripture

- Becomes a priest, and then Bishop of Hippo.

_ Battles the Donatists: Donatists were rigorists, holding that the church must be a church of saints, not sinners, and that sacraments, such as baptism, administered by traditores (traitors: Christians who surrendered the Scriptures to the authorities who outlawed possession of them) were invalid. Probably in 311, a new bishop of Carthage was consecrated by someone who had allegedly been a traditor; his opponents consecrated a short-lived rival, who was succeeded by Donatus, after whom the schism was named. In 313, a commission appointed by Pope Militades found against the Donatists, but they continued to exist, viewing themselves, and not what was known as the Catholic Church, as the true Church, the only one with valid sacraments. Augustine's works against Donatists are: Against the Letter of Parmenian, 400; Baptism, Against the Donatists, 400-401; Against the Letters of Petilian, 401-405; The Unity of the Catholic Church, 405.

- Battles Pelagius. He engaged in debates with Pelagius and followers, who denied original sin and the necessity of God's grace for salvation, over how God saves people. He stressed the absolute depravity of man and the monergistic character of God's salvation
Pick two major works of Augustine and briefly describe their substance and importance.?
*** Confessions: Augustine writes about his life before Christ, and his conversion. It is a sort of apologetic testimony. One reason why it is important is that it upset Pelagius. Pelagius is reacting against Augustine's articulation of human inability / divine sovereignty in salvation.

*** City of God: As the Empire is crumbling, some blame the Christians. Augustine writes to defend Christians against this accusation, and to assert that Christians should be the best citizens of the state, not the cause of its downfall. Not only does he articulate a positive posture of Christian engagement in civic affairs, but he may have prevented an outbreak of persecution.
Patrick / Conversion of Ireland
AD 385-461:

5th century missionary who brought Christianity to Ireland.

St. Patrick taking the gospel to Ireland in the 5th century. Ireland served as a base for missionary activity to neighboring areas, including Scotland and England.
Benedict / Monastic orders
(480-547)

Benedict was from Nursia in. He was founder of monasteries. He was title "patriarch of Western Monasticism." He founded 12 monasteries.

Monastic orders were
1. perpetuity
2. Poverty
3. Chastity

famous Benedictines:
1. Pope Gregory the Great
2. Augustine of Canterbury - first archbishop of Canterbury. in 596 was sent by Gregory the great to convert the English pagans.
Gregory the Great
540-604 Ad.

6th-7th century Pope whose reign inaugurated the middle ages and who greatly increased the power of the papacy. The was the beginning of the Medieval papacy.

* Stimulated missionary effort in England.

Wrote Pastoral Rule. Which is a treatise on the
responsibilities of the clergy.

6th c. Father of medieval papacy. Very competent civil and religious ruler.
Key Dates of the Early Church?
• 70: Destruction of the Jewish Temple

• 313: Constantine's Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity

• 380: Christianity becomes the only official religion of the Roman Empire (Theodosian emperor)
what was the Battle of the Milvian Bridge?
took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28th of October 312. Supposedly, after Constantine won. He saw a cross in the sky, this lead to legalizing Christianity in 313. This was call the edict of Milan.
1. Early Church Persecutions and Emperors?
• 64: Nero (localized in Rome)
• 81-96: Domitian
• 98-117: Trajan
• 249-251: Decius (first systematic general persecution)
• 257: Valerian
• 303: Diocletian (worst persecution)
Major Church Councils and Heresies
1. Nicaea:
Arianism / Convened in 325 by Empr. Constantine.

2. Constantinople:
Apollinarianism / Convened in 381 by Empr. Theodosius I.

3. Ephesus:
Nestorianism <::> Pelagianism: /Convened in 431 by Emperor Theodosius II.

4. Chalcedon:
Eutychianism / Convened in 451 by the Eastern Emperor Marcion
Name other Major Heretical Movements?
1. Antinomianism:
2. Docetism:
3. Ebionites:
4. Marcionism:
5. Gnosticism:
6. Donatism:
7. Manichaenism:
8. Monarchianism:
What is Docetism?
heresy of the early church that denied Jesus had come in the flesh.

Christological heresy which denies the humanity of Jesus. Jesus appeared (Greek dokeo) to be a man, but was not.

1. Jesus only seemed to be a man, but was truly a pure spirit-being uncontaminated by the material world. Thus Jesus did not truly "die" on the cross.

2.Docetism was present as early as the 1st century, was combated by the apostle John in 1 Jn. 4:2, 2 John 1:7 and became an important aspect of Gnosticism.
Who are Ebionites?
Jewish Christians in the 1st - 4th centuries who denied the preexistence of Christ and believed the entire OT law was necessary for salvation.

Strongly monotheistic Jewish sect which denied the incarnation (Jesus was a man born to Mary and Joseph; Holy Spirit entered him at his baptism), and taught the need to keep the Mosaic Law
What is Marcionism?
A. 2nd century heresy that taught a strong distinction between vengeful God of the OT and the God of the NT, and only accepted a reduced NT canon. Marcion formed a
separate church that became a rival to orthodox churches.

B. Some aspects of Marcionism were similar to Gnosticism, in that it taught Jesus was not born into the material world, but merely appeared at age 29. His sufferings were only apparent, not real.

*** (Christ at 29 said, Pleas sir I beg, Have "MARCI"... no! I am an OT Vengeful God)**

Anti-semitic, early second century heresy. Marcion taught a combination of Pauline grace (misunderstood) and Gnosticism. He used as his bible the Pauline epistles, and a modified gospel of Luke (purged of birth narrative). Marcion's heretical canon made it necessary for the church to explicitly define which books had functioned authoritatively all along. The Muratorian Canon (170) is nearly identical to our canon today.
what is Adoptionsim?
Christological heresy which denies the deity of Jesus. Jesus the man is in some way adopted as God's special son. This usually involves Jesus' baptism.
What is Manichaenism?
Third century form of Gnosticism founded by Mani, which continued for several centuries. Augustine was an adherent for a time, and then became a vigorous opponent.

it is a combination of Chrisian, buddhist, and zoroastrian doctrines, which made the perfect religious system. Mani believed that the spiritual realm is good and that matter is inherently evil. The key to his salvation was separation. the divine spirit was confined in the material world and needed to be released and that is what we should do.
What is Monarchianism?
Third century heresy that stresses the oneness of God to such an extent that it denies the personal distinctiveness of the Son and Holy Spirit.

"ONe God reveals himself in 3 ways. "

TWO FORMS OF MANARCHIANISM:

1. Dynamic Monarchianism: The Father alone is God, and the Son was merely a man who was specially endowed with the Holy Spirit.

2. Modalism/Sebellianism: God is 1 person who appears in THREE different modes: the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
Arianism?
Jesus was a created being (not eternal) who was subordinate to the Father in his essence or being.
Apollinarianism?
Denied that Christ possessed a human soul. The Divine
nature occupies the place of the soul in the person of Christ.

Christological heresy which denies the full humanity of Jesus. Jesus had a human body, but not a sensible human soul. Rather, the human soul was replaced by the divine Logos, like a letter inserted into an envelope, so is the divine Logos was inserted into the human Jesus.
Nestorianism?
believed that the divine and human nature of Christ were two separate persons.

A Christological heresy which denies the unity of the person of Christ. Jesus divine and human natures are like oil and water, perfect and distinct.

Two natures, and two persons.
Pelagianism?
emphasized human free will and moral responsibility, denied original sin, and taught salvation through meritorious obedience.
What is Montanism?
Charismatic movement in the second century which emphasized extraordinary gifts of the Spirit (ongoing miracles, ongoing prophecy-revelation), and an eager expectation of the end times. Montanism is significant because no church father ever became a Gnostic or a Marcionite, but Tertullian became a Montanist late in life.
What was Gnosticism?
Gnosticism is a name given to a general worldview which arises in mature form in the second century. (proto-gnostic elements are present in the first century, and prior to that in the Greek philosophers) Gnosticism can be described as:

I.) Dangerous: because it is a general worldview rather than a particular religious sect, and because it was so prevalent in the second century, it tended to absorb other religious systems into it, creating a sort of syncretistic blend.

II. Diverse: There we no one Gnostic faith. It was a general worldview with a host of variations.

III. Difficult: Because it was so diverse, it was very difficult to deal with. It was like the mythical Hydra - you cut off one head, and two more grow back in its place.
Describe the basic teachings of Gnosticism?
1. Dualism (spirit vs. matter): one essential feature of gnosticism was its dualistic understanding of the universe, pitting spirit against matter. Spirit is good, matter is bad.

2. Salvation by knowledge (gnosis): because spirit is good and matter is bad, salvation is perceived as being delivered from matter. We are 'spiritual' beings 'trapped' in a physical body. This was the work of an evil sub-god who created the physical universe. Salvation is attained through knowledge (gnosis).
Ebionism
Jewish Christians in the 1st - 4th centuries who denied the preexistence of Christ and believed the entire OT law was necessary for salvation.
Marcion / Marcion Heresy
A. 2nd century heresy that taught a strong distinction between vengeful God of the OT and the God of the NT, and only accepted a reduced NT canon. Marcion formed a separate church that became a rival to orthodox churches.

B. Some aspects of Marcionism were similar to Gnosticism, in that it taught Jesus was not born into the material world, but merely appeared at age 29. His sufferings were
only apparent, not real.
Sabellianism
this is another name for Modalism, Monarchianism, or Patripassianism. It began of rthe third centurey.

Teachers of this heresy were Noetus, Praxeas, Sabellius. Little is known about them, except the menition of them in Tertullian's writings. Tertullian sneere at praxeas theories, because it would conclude that God the father, must of been incarnate and indured suffering.

Third century heresy that stresses the oneness of God to such an extent that it denies the personal distinctiveness of the Son and Holy Spirit.

TWO FORMS OF MANARCHIANISM:
(God of many masks or hats)
1. Dynamic Monarchianism: The Father alone is God, and the Son was merely a man who was specially endowed with the Holy Spirit.

2. Modalism/Sebellianism: God is 1 person who appears in THREE different modes: the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
Muraturian Canon (170)
The Muratorian Canon (or Fragment) is a list of Scriptural books dating from the 2nd century.

Date: at face value thei statement that Pius was recently bishop of Rome would date the list to (AD 157-170). But some scholars date it 4th century.

the list leaves out Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, and 3 John.
Council of Nicea (325; Full Deity of Jesus)
(325; Full Deity of Jesus)

1. It was Convened in 325 by Emperor Constantine and condemned Arianism.

2. Arianism: Jesus was a created being (not eternal) who was subordinate to the Father in his essence or being. "There was when he was not."

3. Nicene Creed: Key Language
The Son is "of one substance with the Father" (homoousios) "Begotten, not made"
Apollinarianism
Denied that Christ possessed a human soul. The Divine
nature (The Logos ) occupies the place of the soul in the person of Christ.
Council of Constantinople
(381; Apollinarianism)

**IT IS AN EXPANSION OF NICENE CREED**

1. Convened in 381 by Emperor Theodosius I. It dealt decisively with Arianism and condemned Apollinarianism. It also reaffirmed Nicaea, and expanded its teaching on the
Holy Spirit by affirming his Deity.

2.Apollinarianism: Denied that Christ possessed a human soul. The Divine nature occupies the place of the soul in the person of Christ.

3. Continued defense against Arianism led by Athanasius Expanded the section of the Nicene Creed on the Holy Spirit, affirming his Deity.

Original Nicene Creed only said "I believe in the Holy Spirit."
Vulgate
The Vulgate is a late fourth-century Latin translation of the Bible that became, during the 16th century, the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible.

The translation was largely the work of St. Jerome, who, in 382 AD, was commissioned by Pope Damasus I to revise the Vetus Latina ("Old Latin") collection of biblical texts in Latin then in use by the Church.
Donatist controversy
> Fourth century North Africans who started a separate church, and highly emphasized holiness and the purity of the visible church. Primary opponent was Augustine.


> Donatism started after the persecutions of Diocletian, when the Donatists refused to accept back into the church those who had poured a libation to the emperor or had forfeited Bibles to be burned.


They reject the validity of the sacraments administered by the priests who denied Christ under persecution. They hold to the validity of the sacraments through the priest (ex opere operantis) rather than the elements itself (Ex Opere Operato). Augustine argued against this sacrament doctrine
Pelagius / Pelagianism
emphasized human free will and moral responsibility, denied original sin, and taught salvation through meritorious obedience.
The Cappadocians
4th century men who are especially known for their opposition to Arianism and their theology of the Holy Spirit. Includes Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa.

The Cappadocian Fathers , also traditionally known as the Three Cappadocians, are:

1. Basil the Great (330-379), who was bishop of Caesarea;

2. Gregory of Nyssa (c.332-395), who was bishop of Nyssa;

3.Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389), who became Patriarch of Constantinople.
Council of Ephesus
It was Convened in 431 by Emperor Theodosius II. It condemned Nestorianism and Pelagianism.
Nestorianism?
A Christological heresy which denies the unity of the person of Christ. Jesus divine and human natures are like oil and water, perfect and distinct.

Two natures, and two persons.
Council of Chalcedon
1. It was Convened in 451 by the Eastern Emperor Marcion. It condemned Eutychianism and composed the Chalcedonian Creed, which established the hypostatic union as orthodox doctrine.

2. KEY LANGUAGE:
A. Hypostatic Union (2 natures of Christ: Divine and human) Christ possesses a "reasonable soul."

B. The union of Christ's divine and human natures exists "without confusion, without change, without division, without separation."

C. As to his deity, Christ is "of one substance (homoousios) with the Father," but as to his humanity he is "of one substance with us."
Chalcedonian Christology (1 person with 2 whole, perfect natures)
*There four keys areas which this creed safe guards*
1. Christ true and proper DEITY. Not a man becoming a god or God.

2. Christ true and proper HUMANITY. Not merely "like" a man.

3. The REAL UNION of the deity and humanity in one person. Not two persons. Or a denial of the full deity of Christ while man (kenotic theory).

4. The REAL DISTINCTION between the deity and humanity in the one person. Not one nature. or the the mixture of the two natures resulted in a tertium quid, that is a third kind of being, neither God nor man.
summed up
"Union without fusion; distinction without separation."
Eutychianism?
A Christological heresy which makes Jesus a 'compound unity', like sodium chloride. Jesus then becomes neither God nor man, but a third thing. One nature (a third kind of nature), and one person.

The human Nature of Christ was absorbed by the Logos.
Fall of Rome to the Gothsm 410 AD
The Sack of Rome occurred on August 24, 410. The city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric. At that time, Rome was no longer the capital of the Western Roman Empire, having been replaced in that position first by Mediolanum in 286 and then by Ravenna in 402.

This was the first time in almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to a foreign enemy.
Apostles' Creed?
Not written by the apostles, and not a creed. Roots from early (2nd - 3rd century) Roman Creed; a basic confession of the Christian faith which follows a Trinitarian scheme; originally used as a baptismal creed. ca. 8th century for final revision.
Nicean Creed
(325, 381) This is the creed written at Nicea, and expanded at Constantinople. (the original simply said, "I believe in the Holy Ghost.", completing the Trinitarian format, but not saying much!). The Nicene creed was written to exclude Arian understandings of the relationship between Jesus and the Father, and in its ultimate form excludes any form of subordinationism. Thus, the Nicene creed affirms that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are all God, coequal, and co-eternal. Primarily defended the Son's divinity ("true God of true God, "light of light", "of the same substance (homoousia) as the Father").
Contrast the 100's to 600's
THe roman church by the start of the 7c has a stark conrast to 1c. This doctrines progressed in time.

1. from Parity & pluralityof elders <==> pope.

2. from Lords supper <==> a corporal presence (transubstantiation). it was held vaguely by some, but was on till 831, Paschasius Radbertus published a treatise on it and it was dogmatized at the Lateran council in 1215.

3. Purgatory - A doctrine favoured by Gregory the Great and was widley accepted, but was not an article of faith till the council of Florence in 1439.

4. Mary worship - the council of ephesus dclared in c. 431 that mary was Theotokos, 'mother of God' this progressed and by the end of 7th cent. Adoration and superstitious prayer for he intervention began to inter in.

5. Prayer to the dead/ saints - this happened gradully, but these prayers were officially recognized at the 2nd council of Nicea in 787.

6. Confessiong sins to a preist - progressed, but commanded by biship of Metz in 763

7. Simple to Ornate places of worship.

8. From pastors to Priests and vestments

9. Incense in worship.