PS 261 Quiz 6

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https://quizlet.com/31470061/40-flash-cards/

https://www.coursehero.com/file/13571278/Kassin-SocialPsych-9e-TB-Ch06doc/

https://quizlet.com/71490776/social-psychology-mid-term-flash-cards/
A social psychology graduate student who works long hours for little pay becomes increasingly convinced that she loves social psychology. This student's attitude toward her chosen field of study is most likely the result of

a. psychological reactance.
b. self-affirmation.
c. insufficient justification.
d. insufficient deterrence.
c. insufficient justification.
Jaycie is extremely judgmental. She has strong opinions about politics, social issues, and moral concerns. Jaycie is high in the
a. evaluative conditioning.
b. cognitive dissonance.
c. need for cognition.
d. need for evaluation.
d. need for evaluation.
Which of the following theories suggests that intentions to perform a behavior are best predicted by attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control?
a. Cognitive dissonance theory
b. Self-affirmation theory
c. Self-perception theory
d. Theory of planned behavior
d. Theory of planned behavior



The theory states that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and behaviors.
Persuasive communication is the outcome of three possible factors. Which of these is not one of those factors?
a. Context
b. Audience
c. Source
d. Message
a context
Wells and Petty (1980) videotaped students as they listened to a speech. The results of this study indicated that
a. students' self-reported attitudes did not agree with their observed attitudes.
b. students revealed the intensity, but not the direction, of their attitudes through their body language.
c. horizontal head movements indicate agreement, whereas vertical head movements indicate disagreement.
d. students signaled their attitudes by nodding or shaking their heads.
d. students signaled their attitudes by nodding or shaking their heads.
Which of the following source characteristics best explains why a company might recruit a supermodel to endorse its products?
a. Likeability
b. Similarity
c. Credibility
d. Trustworthiness
a. Likeability
The idea that we infer our own attitudes by coolly observing ourselves and the circumstances of our behavior is most consistent with
a. cognitive dissonance theory.
b. elaboration-likelihood theory.
c. planned behavior theory.
d. self-perception theory.
d. self-perception theory.
High self-monitors respond more to _____ advertising.
a. fact-based
b. image-oriented
c. information-oriented
d. subliminal
b. image-oriented
Which of the following concerning the impact of body movements on persuasion is true?
a. Stimuli associated with stretching the arms outward are rated more positively than those associated with flexing the arms inward.
b. Stretching the arms outward makes people less likely to engage in central route processing than does flexing the arms inward.
c. Nodding the head side to side makes people more likely to engage in central route processing than does nodding the head up and down.
d. People who nod their heads up and down express greater agreement with a persuasive message than those who nod their heads side to side.
d. People who nod their heads up and down express greater agreement with a persuasive message than those who nod their heads side to side.

Petty and Cacioppo (1986a, 1986b) state that there are two "routes" to persuasion:
central and peripheral. The central route to persuasion consists of thoughtful consideration of the arguments (ideas, content) of the message.

Central processing has two prerequisites: It can only occur when the receiver has both the motivation and the ability to think about the message and its topic. If the listener doesn't care about the topic of the persuasive message, he or she will almost certainly lack the motivation to do central processing. On the other hand, if the listener is distracted or has trouble understanding the message, he or she will lack the ability to do central processing.

The peripheral route to persuasion occurs when the listener decides whether to agree with the message based on other cues besides the strength of the arguments or ideas in the message. A listener may decide to agree with a message because the source appears to be an expert, or is attractive.

Receiver notices that a message has many arguments -- but lacks the ability or motivation to think about them individually.
A negative reaction to the feeling that one's freedom is being threatened is called
a. forewarning.
b. cognitive dissonance.
c. the inoculation hypothesis.
d. psychological reactance
d. psychological reactance
A sleeper effect occurs when
a. people fall asleep during exposure to a persuasive message.
b. distraction interferes with the ability to pay attention to a persuasive message.
c. persuasion occurs in response to subliminal stimuli.
d. a persuasive message from a noncredible source becomes more persuasive over time.
d. a persuasive message from a noncredible source becomes more persuasive over time.
The process by which we form an attitude toward a neutral stimulus because of its association with a positive or negative person, place, or thing is called
a. evaluative conditioning.
b. insufficient justification.
c. psychological reactance.
d. persuasion.
a. evaluative conditioning.
Public opinion pollsters, in trying to assess attitudes about particular subjects, have become aware that attitude responses seem to be affected by all of the factors below except
a. the order of the questions.
b. the length of the questionnaire.
c. the wording of the question.
d. the context in which the question appears.
b. the length of the questionnaire.
The more products a celebrity endorses, the
less trustworthy
People who are high in intelligence and/or self-esteem tend to be _____ vulnerable to persuasion when compared to people low in intelligence and/or self-esteem.
a. somewhat less
b. more
c. equally
d. less
d. somewhat less
Research indicates that subliminal influence
a. usually occurs in the short term for simple judgments.
b. never occurs.
c. is more likely among people high in the need for cognition.
d. can persuade people to take action even when they were previously unmotivated to do so.
a. usually occurs in the short term for simple judgments.
According to research by Tormala and Petty (2002), an attitude can be ____ by a persuasive message or argument ____ it.
a. weakened; against
b. weakened; for
c. strengthened; for
d. strengthened; against
d. strengthened; against
Which of the following is not an explanation for why people in a positive mood are more susceptible to persuasion?
a. A positive mood makes people more thoughtful, so they are more likely to engage in central processing.
b. Happy people want to preserve that mood, so they don't want to ruin it with critical evaluation of information.
c. A positive emotional state is distracting, making evaluation of arguments difficult.
d. A good mood makes you feel that all is well, and you don't work as hard to evaluate arguments.
a. A positive mood makes people more thoughtful, so they are more likely to engage in central processing.
Which of the following situations should prompt the least decisional dissonance?
a. Elmer likes both duck and rabbit, but he decides to order the rabbit for dinner.
b. Though he would rather be playing football with his friends, Wyatt decides to start his 20-page philosophy paper rather than his 25-page history paper.
c. Audrey doesn't like cats much, so she decides that her new pet will be a dog.
d. Tevin would like to spend his vacation in both Italy and Greece, but can only afford to travel to one place, so he decides to go to Greece.
c. Audrey doesn't like cats much, so she decides that her new pet will be a dog.
Josue listened to a speech on the radio advocating the increased use of automobiles that are not reliant on fossil fuels. One would expect the sleeper effect to be greatest if Josue found out about the background of the speaker _____ the speech and was asked about his views about the issue _____.
a. after; a few weeks later
b. before; that same day
c. before; a few weeks later
d. after; that same day
a. after; a few weeks later
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