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31 terms

zbio - Unit 6 - Life Substances and Digestion

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Nutrient
substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to live
Calorie
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
Carbohydrate
a nutrient that is composed of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and are a major source of energy
Glucose
a sugar that is the major source of energy for a cell
Fat
a nutrient composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen forms the cell membrane and is used as insulation in our bodies
Protein
a nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and is used for tissue repair and growth in the body.
Amino Acid
the building blocks of proteins
Nucleic Acid
very large organic molecule that contains the instructions cells need to carry out all the functions of life.
Nucleotide
building block of DNA and RNA
Vitamin
act as helper molecules in a variety of chemical reactions in the body
Mineral
nutrient that is not made by living things
Water
the most important nutrient in the body because all chemical reactions take place in this substance
Digestion
the process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules
Absorption
the process by which nutrients pass through the wall of your digestion system into the blood
Mouth
both mechanical and chemical digestion begin here
Saliva
a liquid made in your mouth that helps both mechanical and chemical digestion
Enzyme
proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body
Epiglottis
a flap of tissue that seals off your windpipe when you swallow.
Esophagus
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
Mucus
a thick, slippery substance that makes food easier to swallow and move through our digestive system
Peristalsis
involuntary muscle contractions in the digestive system that help move food through the system
Stomach
a muscular pouch in which most mechanical digestion occurs
Small Intestine
the longest part of your digestive system where most chemical digestion takes place
Liver
the largest organ in the human body that produces bile for digestion
Bile
a substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles
Gall Bladder
an organ that job is to store bile
Pancreas
an organ that produces many enzymes to break down starches, proteins, and fats
Villi
tiny finger-like projections in the small intestine that absorb nutrient molecules
Large Intestine
an organ that functions to absorb water from digested food
Rectum
an organ that compresses and stores solid waste
Anus
the muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste is eliminated from the body