Block four study guide
Terms in this set (83)
Treatment for shock
High Flow O2
Position of comfort
Gun Shot Wound "GSW"
The higher velocity of the projectile, the larger the cavity it produces, typically resulting in a larger amount of tissue damage
Speed causes a bullet to generate pressure waves, which cause damage distant from the bullet's path
Abdominal injury that goes through the skin and muscle layer.
Treatment: Do not push organs back into abdominal cavity. Place wet dressing, then a dry dressing, then tape.
Inappropriate sized in C- Collar
Use rolled up towels to stabilize the head and tape down to board.
Body tissue or organ is being wasted away. Typically due to the degeneration of cells.
gradually decline in effectiveness or vigor due to underuse or neglect.
example: when someone breaks their arm and is in a cast for 3 months the arm that was injured will look much smaller than the other arm due to muscle atrophy.
A portion of the chest wall detaches from the Thoracic Cavity
Sucking Chest Wound
or open pneumothorax, the hole is in the chest wall, you can hear a sucking sound as the patient inhales and the sound of rushing air as they exhale.
Sucking Chest Wound Treatment
Treatment: after clearing and maintaining the airway, provide oxygen and rapidly seal open wound with an occlusive dressing, taped on three sides. This is called a flutter valve. Flutter valves allow air to leave the chest cavity but not return
There is an external wound, caused either by the same blow that fractured the bone or by the broken bone ends lacerating the skin
also known as a hairline fracture, is a simple crack of the bone that may be difficult to distinguish from a sprain or a simple contusion
Produces an actual deformity, or distortion of the limb by shortening rotating or angulating it
A fracture in which the bone is broken into more than two fragments
A fracture that occurs in a growth section of a child's bone and may lead to growth abnormalities
An incomplete fracture that only passes partway through the shaft of the bone but still may cause substantial angulation; occurs in children
Does not run completely through the bone; a non-displaced partial crack
bone is broken at an angle across the bone. Usually the result of a sharp, angled blow to bone
weakened of diseased bone, seen in patients with osteoporosis, infection, or cancer; often by minimal force
caused by a twisting or spinning force, causing a long, spiral-shaped break in the bone. This is sometimes the result of abuse in young children
occurs straight across the bone. Usually the result of a direct blow injury
a deformed part, especially of the body; a malformation.
a region of injured tissue or skin in which blood capillaries have been ruptured; a bruise.
the process of scraping or wearing away.
Body's response to too much heat/energy
Sensitivity to pain
Deep cut or tear in skin
an abnormal enlargement of a part of the body, typically as a result of an accumulation of fluid.
Damage to the Cervical Spine: C5
Damage to the spinal cord at the C5 vertebra affects the vocal cords, biceps, and deltoid muscles in the upper arms. Unlike some of the higher cervical injuries, a patient with a C5 spinal cord injury will likely be able to breath and speak on their own.
Damage to the Cervical Spine: C7
The portion of the spinal cord corresponding to the C7 vertebra communicates with the tricep muscles. A survivor of a C7 spinal cord injury will likely have full neck movement but may sense tingling and numbness in the hands and fingers, as well as referred pain in the shoulder blade.
Glasgow Coma Scale: Eyes
Response to Speech 3
Response to Pain 2
Glasgow Coma Scale: Verbal
Inappropriate Words 3
Incomprehensible sound 2
Glasgow Coma Scale: Motor Response
Obeys Command 6
Localizes Pain 5
Withdraws from Pain 4
Abnormal Flexion 3
Abnormal Extension 2
Front end collision
Evaluate supplemental restraint system
-Determine whether the air bags deployed
-Despite air bags, suspect injuries to extremities and internal organs
Known to cause whiplash-type injuries
-body is propelled forward, the head and neck are left behind.
-injury to head is possible
-Large trucks and SUV's prone
-injury depends on whether passenger was restrained
Ejection or partial ejection is most common life-threat
How to Backboard
1. Position device
2. Log Roll
3. If there's space between head and torso, fill with padding
4. Secure torso by straps across the chest, pelvis, and legs
5. Reassess pulse, motor function, and sensation in extremities
6. When secured, lift backboard or turn on its side if necessary
First body part to strap during backboard
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
Clear watery fluid that is produced in a chamber inside the brain called the third ventricle. CSF primarily acts as a shock absorber.
Halo Test: place towel against ear, if yellow white-ish fluid creates a halo, then there is secretions of CSF.
If you have to remove a helmet..
1. Kneel at the patient's head
2. Open face shield
3. Stabilize head
4. Once strap is loosened, one hand is on lower jaw and the other behind the occipital region. Then pull.
5. Gently slip helmet halfway off patient's head and stop
6. Partner then repositions hand from occipital region to behind the head to support
7. Partners hand in place, remove helmet, then stabilize cervical spine
8. Apply C Collar, and secure on backboard
9. With large helmets or small patients, you may need to place pad under shoulders to prevent flexion.
Glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shaft of the hairs
Bleed Control Techniques
Direct, Even Pressure
Pressure dressings and/or splints
A congenital abnormality in which the body is unable to produce clots, which results in uncontrollable bleeding
Large and Small Intestine
Hollow Organ Secretions
Urine or bile is passed through the urinary bladder
Intestines and stomach contain acids
Significant force is applied to body. Damage depends on how much force is applied and how long. Causing direct soft-tissue damage, continued compression of the soft tissues cuts off circulation, producing further tissue destruction.
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a rupture into the retroperitoneal cavity, which results in the classical triad of pain, hypotension, and a pulsatile mass.
Injuries which load is applied along the vertical or longitudinal axis of the spine, which results in load being transmitted along the entire length of the vertebral column
Trauma Center: Level 1
Facility provides every aspect of trauma care
Trauma Center: Level 2
Facility provides initial definitive care
Trauma Center: Level 3
Provides assessment, resuscitation, emergency care and stabilization
Trauma Center: Lever 4
Provides advanced trauma life support
Injuries to Face and Neck
Often leads to partial or complete airway obstruction
-Blood clots from heavy bleeding
-Direct injuries to nose mouth larynx and trachea
-Dislodgment of teeth or dentures in throat
Inflammation or infection of the outer membrane of the eyeball and the inner eyelid. or Pink Eye
An emergency when part of the eye (the retina) pulls away from supportive tissue.
Components of Blood
Red Blood Cells: Carry oxygen and nutrients
White Blood Cells: The immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders
Plasma: Makes up about half of the content of blood. Plasma contains proteins that help blood to clot, transport substances through the blood, and perform other functions
Platelets: Prevents Bleeding
Due entirely from blast
Damage struck from debris
Victims hurled by force of explosion
pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid
A condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high.
abnormally slow heart action.
muscle whose action is normally controlled by an individual's will; mainly skeletal muscle, composed of parallel bundles of striated, multinucleate fibers. Origin of voluntary muscle Expand.
One very important involuntary muscle is your heart, which keeps beating all day and night. Other involuntary muscles help digest food and are found in your stomach and intestines.
Central Nervous System
Includes the brain and spinal cord
The brain controls the body and is the center of consciousness.
Brain is divided into three major areas:
3 or more ribs, broken in 2 or more places on one side.. Treatment in the field? (Flail Segment Treatment)
Take dressing and place over the flail segment and tape all FOUR sides.
Falls in elderly people
Caused by osteoporosis which is a condition that affects men and women, is characterized by a decrease in bone mass leading to reduction in bone strength and greater susceptibility to fracture
Pathophysiology: a partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space. Pneumothorax is most often caused by trauma
- pleuritic chest pain
- sharp, stabbing pain on one side that is worse during inspiration and expiration or with certain movements of the chest wall
Pathophysiology: Commonly the result of blunt trauma that results in fractured ribs. The lung has to collapse a significant amount before the effects will be heard as decreased breath sounds.
- accessory muscle use
- crackling sensation felt on palpation of the skin which indicates that air escaping from a lacerated lung is leaking into the tissues of the chest wall
- decreased breath sounds on the injured side as well as lethargy and cyanosis
Pathophysiology: chest injury and there is significant ongoing air accumulation in the pleural space (space between the lungs and the skin). Puts pressure on the vena cava, decreasing cardiac output, causing shock, and ultimately causing death.
-marked respiratory distress
-absent/severely decreased lung sounds on the affected side.
They also will have signs of shock and an altered mental status. Additionally, they may exhibit jugular vein distension (JVD), cyanosis, or tracheal deviation. If tracheal deviation is seen, the patient requires immediate intervention.
"sucking chest wound."
-diminished lung sounds on the affected side of the chest
-sucking sound as the patient inhales
- sound of rushing air when they exhale.
cerebral contusion (know the difference from a concussion)
involves physical injury to the brain tissue, which may sustain long lasting and even permanent damage. as with contusions that occur elsewhere in the body, there is associated bleeding and swelling from inured blood vessels. injury of brain tissue or bleeding inside the skull causes an increase of pressure within the skull
concussion (know the difference from a cerebral contusion)
concussions are also known as mild traumatic brain injuries. it is a closed injury with a temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without demonstrable physical damage to the brain.a concussion may result in unconsciousness and even the inability to breathe for short periods of time; however, approximately 90% of patients who sustain a concussion do not experience a loss of consciousness. a patient with a concussion may be confused or have amnesia.
what do the pupils look like in head injuries
pupil size and reaction to light. unequal pupil size after a head injury in an unconscious patient often signals a serious problem. the brain controls the diameter of pupils and how quickly they react. if an injury has occurred on one side of the brain, just one pupil will dilate.
injured brain starts to swell, initially because of cerebral vasodilation. an increase in cerebral water (cerebral edema) then contributes to further brain swelling. swelling of the brain may not develop until several hours following the initial injury. low oxygen levels in the blood aggravate cerebral edema. therefore cerebral edema can be minimized by maintaining high oxygen saturation.
right upper quadrant
liver, gallbladder, duodenum of the intestines, and a small portion of the pancreas
right lower quadrant
portions of the large and small intestines, colon, appendix
left upper quadrant
stomach, spleen, portion of the pancreas
left lower quadrant
large and small intestines, colon