Only $35.99/year

Feedback Mechanisms

Terms in this set (49)

Two amine hormones from the thyroid gland, T4 and T3, regulate an animal's development and metabolism. Negative feedback maintains homeostatic levels of T4 and T3 in the blood. Thyroid imbalance can cause disease. Blood calcium level is regulated by a tightly balanced antagonism between calcitonin from the thyroid and parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands. The pancreas secretes two hormones, insulin and glucagon, that control blood glucose levels. Insulin signals cells to use and store glucose. Glucagon causes cells to release stored glucose into the blood. Diabetes mellitus results from a lack of insulin or a failure of cells to respond to it. Hormones from the adrenal gland shape maintain homeostasis when the body is stressed Nerve signals from the hypothalamus stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which trigger the fight or flight response. ACTH from the pituitary causes the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, which boost blood pressure and energy response to long0term stress. Glucocorticoids relieve inflammation and pain, but they can mask injury and suppress immunity. Estrogens, progestins, and androgens are steroid sex hormones produced by the gonads in response to signal from the hypothalamus and pituitary. Estrogens and progestins stimulate the development of female characteristics and maintain the female reproductive system. Androgens, such as testosterone, trigger the development of male characteristics.