Chapter 4: Physiological Needs
Terms in this set (35)
condition with the person that is essential and necessary f for growth, well-being, and life.
- deficiency-based biological needs (hunger)
- growth-oriented psychological needs (autonomy)
- implicit or unconscious psychological needs (achievement)
- Differences - direction of behavior (attention and action)
Some generate deficiency motivation whereas others generate growth motivation.
- Some state of deprivation activates an emergency-like need to interact with the world in a way that will quiet the deficit. (tension packed, urgency laden, anxiety, frustration, pain, stress, and relief)
- Gently guide behavior toward a developmental trajectory of growth and well-being. (interest, enjoyment, hope, and vitality)
Hull's biological based drive theory
physiological deprivations and deficits give rise to bodily need state that stimulate neural structures, which in turn, give rise to a physiological drive, which motivates the consummatory behavior that results in drive reduction. As time goes by, physiological deprivations recur and the cyclical process repeats itself.
- If needs becomes potent enough to occupy attention and generate psychological drive.
- Drive: the psychological and discomfort stemming from the underlying and persistent biological deficit. Energizes the animal into action and directs that activity toward those particular behaviors that are capable of servicing bodily needs.
- tension and restlessness which is a psychological drive.
Regulatory process for thirst, hunger, and sex
1. Physiological need
2. Psychological drive
4. Negative feedback
5. Multiple inputs and outputs
6. Intraorganismic influences
7. Extraorganismic influences
deficient biological condition.
conscious manifestation of an underlying unconscious psychological need.
- drive has motivational properties.
- drive readies the individual to engage in goal-directed thoughts and behaviors that are capable of yielding drive reduction.
The bodies tendency to maintain a stable internal state.
Homeostasis' physiological stop system.
- Inhibits drive-motivated behavior once the underlying need is satisfied.
Multiple inputs and outputs
drive arises from a number of different sources (inputs) and motivates a number of different goal-directed behaviors (outputs) until satiety.
all the biological regulatory systems within the person that act in concert to activate, maintain, and terminate the biological needs that underlie drive.
- Brain structures, the endocrine system, and bodily organs.
- How internal physiological events cause biological needs.
all environmental influences that play a part in activating, maintaining, and terminating psychological drive.
- cognitive, environmental, social, and cultural influences.
- how cognitive, environmental, social, and cultural events cause biological need.
The Homeostatic Mechanism
Intraorganismic mechanisms engage in an ongoing process of error detection in which rising internal conditions produce negative feedback and satiety or falling internal conditions produce need, drive, and behavioral restoration.
Hunger and eating
- Short term (glucostatic hypothesis) homeostasis
- Long term (lipostatic hypothesis, including set-point theory) genetic and metabolism energy balance models
- cognitive social environmental models
Stomach distensions and body temperature (cold stimulates eating)
Different foods provide a different feeling of satiety, mostly because they differ in amount of protein, fiber, and carbohydrates, fat, water, and serving size.
glucose deficiency stimulates eating by activation of the lateral hypothalamus, whereas glucose excess inhibits eating by activating the ventromedial hypothalamus.
- blood sugar levels are critical to hunger.
- glucose levels are monitored by the liver, and when it is low, the liver sends an excitatory signal to the LH.
- VMH is the brain's satiety center
- LH also contains specialized neurons that respond to reward properties of food.
Long-term energy balance
- Fat (adipose tissue) also produce energy.
a shrunken stomach releases hormones such as ghrelin to stimulate the lateral hypothalamus to generate hunger and motivate eating, while extended fat cells release hormones such as leptin to stimulate the satiety and stop eating.
- when the mass of fat stored drops below is homeostatic balance, adipose tissue secretes hormones (gherlin) into the bloodstream to promote hunger that increases food intake.
- when the mass of fat stores increases above its homeostatic balance, adipose tissue secretes hormones (leptin) into the blood stream to promote satiety that reduces food intake.
is a hormone manufactured in the stomach, circulated in the blood, and detected and monitored by the lateral hypothalamus.
- receives the message from stomach and intestines
Diet induced food deprivation leads the body to generate a potent counterforce against further dieting and food deprivation.
manufactured by fat cells throughout the body, circulated in the blood, and detected and monitored by the VMH.
- receives message from fat cells
Eating behavior is influenced by
environmental incentives such as the sight, smell, and taste of food, the presence of others, situational pressures such as a group norm, and the effort to establish a cognitively regulated eating style.
argues that each individual has a biologically determined body weight or "fat thermostat" that is set by genetics either at birth or shortly thereafter.
- Hunger activation and satiety depend on size not number, of one's fat cells, which vary over time.
- Set-point rises with age, metabolism drops following prolonged caloric restriction, and chronic excess of food intake can lead to an increase in both fat cells and fat cell number, which can change the set point upwards.
Time of day, stress, sight, smell, appearance, taste of food.
Cognitively Regulated Eating Style
The dieter attempts to bring eating behavior under cognitive, rather than under physiological control.
- Cognitive controls do not have a negative feedback system - highly vulnerable to bingeing
1. We think that cognitive controls and willpower are stronger than our physiological controls and hunger urges.
2. Environmental events and our own feelings can easily distract us away from cognitive controls over what we are trying to do.
- our biological signals overwhelm our well-meant cognitive controls - restraint-release
Fasting rarely works because it is associated with a major reduction of energy expended, decreased metabolism, and fragile cognitive controls that are dangerously vulnerable to restraint release.
Weight gain and obesity
Obesity: medical term that describes a state of increased body weight that is of sufficient magnitude to produce health consequences, including risk of heart disease, diabetes, respiratory problems, some cancers, and premature death.
- 65% of americans overweight, with 35% of adults classifying as obese or morbidly obese.
- other than surgery, prevention or reverse weight gain is through self-regulatory strategies, becoming aware of and monitoring the environmental influences that affect eating, and increasing physical activity to expend calories and fat stores. (voluntary) mindfulness, exercise, and self-regulation
Comprehensive Model of Hunger Regulation
Combines both short-term and long-term physiological influences with environmental and psychological influences.
Cyclical physiological need to psychological need.
- female pheromones and its scents stimulates sexual advances in males
Sexual behavior is influenced, but not determined, by hormones.
- sex hormones are: androgens, estrogens, progesterone, and oxytocin.
Sexual motivation rises and falls in response to
host factors, including hormones, activation of the subcortical brain's reward center, external stimulation, external cues, cognitive strips, sexual schemas, and evolutionary presses.
Sexual motivation in the human male
relatively straight forward, linear triphasic response cycle (desire- arousal- orgasm), a close correlation between erectile response and psychologically felt desire, relatively homogeneous sexual strips, and stereotypical mating preferences and strategies.
- correlation between psychological and physiological arousal is high
Sexual motivation in women
complex, because women's sexual response cycle is often not linear and revolves around emotional intimacy needs, the correlation between genital response and psychological desire is low, sexual scripts and sexual schemas are heterogenous and influenced by oxytocin.
- oxytocin: released by events such as hugging and stimulation of reproductive areas, decreases fear, increases trust, and promotes intimacy and bonding.
- correlation between psychological and physiological arousal is low
- emotional intimacy to be open to sexual stimuli - sexual desire leads to long term relationship intimacy.
Sexual desire brain regions
subcortical brain activations in the ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens, VTA, hypothalamus, and amygdala.
- sexual desire is associated with posterior insula activations
- love is associated with anterior insula activations
- sexual behaviors stimulate the release of oxytocin from hypothalamus
People's judgement of the attractiveness of facial characteristics.
- neonatal features, sexual maturity, and expressive features.
- Physical attractiveness - health, youthfulness, and reproductive capacity (universal)
is one's mental representation of the step-by-step sequence of events that occur during a typical sexual episode.
not so much a personal choice as it is a downstream of developmental outcome of genetics and hormonal exposure in the prenatal environment.
- Prenatal and hormonal environment predicts adolescent sexual orientation.
Evolutionary Basis of Sexual Motivation
- Men have short-term sexual motivations, imposed less stringent standards, value sexual accessibility cues such as youth, and value chastity in males.
- Women value signs of man's resource, social status, ambition, promising career potential.
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