Define antioxidant:
a copound that has the ability to prevent and repair the damages caused by oxidation.
What are the sources of free radicals?
By product of energy metabolism, immune system, environment
Define free radical:
unsatbale molecules with unpair electrons on outer shell, also called (ROS)
Free radical action:
tend to xidize and remove electrons from body molecules, destbailizing them.
3 Body Molecules the free radicals destabilize?
Cell membranes, lipoproteins, DNA
Antioxidant action:
vitamins that act by donating electrons to free radicals,attempt to stabilize them and reducing damage they may do.
Define antioxidant minerals and give 4 examples?
Cofactors for enzymes that are antioxidants which act to neutralize free radicals.
Phytochemicals can help to stabilize free radicals as well.
Vitmain E Properties
Antioxidant, Fat Soluble Vitamin, Tocopherol and tocotrienol
Functions of Vitamin E
Protectd cell membranes and lipoproteins, helps with nerve and muscle development, enhances immune system.
Plant oils are a source of which vitamin?
This vitamin is detroyed by heat and light.
Vitamin E
Deficiencies of Vitamin E
rare, anemia, neuromuscular problems
Overdoes of Vitamin E may cause
hemorragic stroke, and heart failure
UL for Vitamin E
1000mg and only related to supplements and fortified foods.
Vitamin C properties
Water soluble vitamin, antioxidant
Function of vitamin C
Synthesis of collagen, DNA, bile, neurotransmitters, carintie, hormones, and enhances the absorption of iron.
People who need more vitamin C
smokers and traumatically injured people
Sources of vitmain C
citrus, organge fruits, vegetables, deep greens, and fortified foods
This vitamin is detroyed by HEAT and OXYGEN.
Vitamin C
Vitamin C Deficiency
Scurvy, anermia, and poor wond healing
UL for Vitamin C
Define provitamin:
an inactive form that the body can convert to an active form
Beta Carotene properties:
carotenoid, provitmin, can be converted to Vitamin A or retinol
Beta Carotene Functions
enhance immune system, protect skin from sun damage, protect eyes
Beta Carotene is not considered essential
Sources of beta carotene
orange fruits and vegetables, deep green fruits and vegetables
Risk of excess beta caratonene
Hypercarotenosis- seen in the color of the skin turning orange
The active form of Beta Carotene
Vitamin A
Retinol Acitvity Equivalent unites combine
beta-carotene and retinol family compounds
Functions of Vitamin A
Essential for vission, gene expression, cell differieantion, immmunity, endothelia cells, and bone health
Performed Vitamin A is found in?
Animal liver, eggs, diary, and fortified foods.
Vitamin A defiencies
night blindness, color blindness, xeropthamina, hyperkeratosis, increased risk of illmess
Define xeropthamina:
dry eyes, irreversible blindness due to hardening of the cornea and drying of the mucous membranes
This vitamin can be deadly
Vitamin A
trace mineral
Functions of slenium:
needed for antioxidant enzymes, thyroid hormones, and immune functions
Sources of selenium
nuts, organ meat, and sea foor, but varies with soil content
Keshan disease and Kashin disease are caused by:
a selenium deficiency
Slenium in toxic amounts can cause
brittle hair and nails, rashes, nausea, vomiting, liver damage
Copper, zinc, maganese are needed for
superoxide dismutase
iron is needed for
enzyme catalase