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Define antioxidant:

a copound that has the ability to prevent and repair the damages caused by oxidation.

What are the sources of free radicals?

By product of energy metabolism, immune system, environment

Define free radical:

unsatbale molecules with unpair electrons on outer shell, also called (ROS)

Free radical action:

tend to xidize and remove electrons from body molecules, destbailizing them.

3 Body Molecules the free radicals destabilize?

Cell membranes, lipoproteins, DNA

Antioxidant action:

vitamins that act by donating electrons to free radicals,attempt to stabilize them and reducing damage they may do.

Define antioxidant minerals and give 4 examples?

Cofactors for enzymes that are antioxidants which act to neutralize free radicals.

Phytochemicals can help to stabilize free radicals as well.


Vitmain E Properties

Antioxidant, Fat Soluble Vitamin, Tocopherol and tocotrienol

Functions of Vitamin E

Protectd cell membranes and lipoproteins, helps with nerve and muscle development, enhances immune system.

Plant oils are a source of which vitamin?


This vitamin is detroyed by heat and light.

Vitamin E

Deficiencies of Vitamin E

rare, anemia, neuromuscular problems

Overdoes of Vitamin E may cause

hemorragic stroke, and heart failure

UL for Vitamin E

1000mg and only related to supplements and fortified foods.

Vitamin C properties

Water soluble vitamin, antioxidant

Function of vitamin C

Synthesis of collagen, DNA, bile, neurotransmitters, carintie, hormones, and enhances the absorption of iron.

People who need more vitamin C

smokers and traumatically injured people

Sources of vitmain C

citrus, organge fruits, vegetables, deep greens, and fortified foods

This vitamin is detroyed by HEAT and OXYGEN.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C Deficiency

Scurvy, anermia, and poor wond healing

UL for Vitamin C


Define provitamin:

an inactive form that the body can convert to an active form

Beta Carotene properties:

carotenoid, provitmin, can be converted to Vitamin A or retinol

Beta Carotene Functions

enhance immune system, protect skin from sun damage, protect eyes

Beta Carotene is not considered essential


Sources of beta carotene

orange fruits and vegetables, deep green fruits and vegetables

Risk of excess beta caratonene

Hypercarotenosis- seen in the color of the skin turning orange

The active form of Beta Carotene

Vitamin A

Retinol Acitvity Equivalent unites combine

beta-carotene and retinol family compounds

Functions of Vitamin A

Essential for vission, gene expression, cell differieantion, immmunity, endothelia cells, and bone health

Performed Vitamin A is found in?

Animal liver, eggs, diary, and fortified foods.

Vitamin A defiencies

night blindness, color blindness, xeropthamina, hyperkeratosis, increased risk of illmess

Define xeropthamina:

dry eyes, irreversible blindness due to hardening of the cornea and drying of the mucous membranes

This vitamin can be deadly

Vitamin A


trace mineral

Functions of slenium:

needed for antioxidant enzymes, thyroid hormones, and immune functions

Sources of selenium

nuts, organ meat, and sea foor, but varies with soil content

Keshan disease and Kashin disease are caused by:

a selenium deficiency

Slenium in toxic amounts can cause

brittle hair and nails, rashes, nausea, vomiting, liver damage

Copper, zinc, maganese are needed for

superoxide dismutase

iron is needed for

enzyme catalase

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