Chapter 9: Helping Others
Terms in this set (21)
Actions intended to benefit others. Increases if one views oneself as helpful (self-perception theory).
The 'Selfish Gene'
Helping others serves the function of preserving individuals genes, as shown through kin selection effect.
Helping someone else with the expectancy that they will return the favour.
Understanding, or vicariously experiencing, another individual's perspective and feeling sympathy and compassion for them. Potentially evolved due to biological roots. Two types, 1. feeling how another feels, 2. imaging how you would feel.
Arousal: Cost-Reward Model
The proposition that people react to emergency situations by acting in the most cost effective way to reduce the arousal of shock and alarm.
Negative State Relief Model
The proposition that people help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness. Dependent on 'bystander calculus'.
Helping with enormous costs to self.
Motivated by the desire to increase one's own welfare.
Motivated by the desire to improve another's welfare. Sincere if help given regardless of ease of escape (Batson).
Empathic concern for a person in need produces an altruistic motive for helping. But helping can be a mix of altruistic and egotistic motives at times. Also empathy does not always lead to helping behaviour.
Factors that increase our likelihood to be helped: attractiveness, not being responsible for situation (in individualist cultures), similarity to helper, ingroup status, being surrounded by collectivists.
When the presence of others inhibits helping. Awareness of effect diminishes effect (enlightenment effect). Time pressure, location, mood, and culture can decrease or increase effect.
5 Steps of Helping
Noticing, interpreting, taking responsibility, deciding how, providing.
The state in which people in a group mistakenly think that their own individual thoughts, feelings or behaviours are different from those of the others in the group.
Diffusion of Responsibility
The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need. Linked to social impact theory.
Reluctance to help for fear of making a bad impression on observers. Linked to social impact theory.
A general rule of conduct reflecting standards of social approval and disapproval. Reciprocity, religious and social responsibility norms increase helping.
Theory that prosocial behaviour can be learnt through classical and operant conditioning, and observational learning.
Four Motives for Prosocial Behaviour
Egoism, altruism, collectivism, principlism.
Benefiting another person to benefit a group.
Benefiting another to uphold a moral principle.
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