33 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 7 Vocab

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cell
basic unit of all forms of life
cell theory
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living thingl and that new cells are produced from existing cells
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
nucleus
structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
prokaryote
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
cytoplasm
in eukaryotic cells, all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokaryotic cells, all of the cell's contents
organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a cell
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
lysosome
cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments in a eularyolic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
ribosome
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system found in eukaryolic cells
golgi apparatus
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticules for storage in the cell or release outside of the cell
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and converts in into chemical energy
mitochondrion
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
cell wall
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
lipid bilayer
flexible double layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
selectively permeable
property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others cannot
diffusion
process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
facilitated diffusion
process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels
aquaporin
water channel protein in a cell
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
isotonic
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
hypertonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the great concentration of solutes
hypotonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
osmotic pressure
pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
homeostasis
relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organ
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
receptor
on or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone