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16 terms

Biology 621A - Chapter 18 - Genetics Ahead

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Amniocentesis
a medical procedure in which a sample of cells from the amniotic fluid is tested for abnormalities in a fetus
Chorionic Villi Sampling
sampling of cells from the chorion to test for genetic conditions in a fetus. The cells are grown in a special medium after which a karotype can be used to make a diagnosis.
Fetoscopy
enables direct observation of the fetus through an endoscope to allow medical professionals to safely perform various procedures directly inside the womb
Genetic Markers
any characteristic that provides information about an organism's genome
Gel Electrophoresis
can be used to generate a DNA fingerprint.
Prenatal diagnoses
____________ can be used to determine some genetic conditions and disorders
Gene therapy
_______________ is being tested as one way to reverse some of the effects of genetic disorders
GMOs
Genetically modified organisms
GMFs
Genetically modified foods
Chorionic Villi Sampling
Used to test for genetic defects and can be done as early as the ninth week of pregnancy
Restriction Enzymes
enzymes which recognize a specific short sequence of nucleotides (the target sequence) on a strand of DNA and cut the strand at a particular point within that sequence
Recombinant DNA
segments of DNA from two different species that are joined in a laboratory to form a single molecule of DNA
Polymerase Chain Reaction
almost entirely automated method of replicating DNA that allows researchers to target and amplify a very specific sequence within a DNA sample
Cloning
a process in which an identical copy of an organism or part of an organism that has the same genetic make-up, such as the offspring of asexual reproduction, a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
Human Genome Project
Determined the sequence of three billion base pairs that make up the human genome
Restriction Site
the specific sites at which a restriction enzyme will cleave DNA