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Science Olympiad: Anatomy and Physiology 2017
Covers neurology, senses and endocrines
Terms in this set (162)
Central Nervous System
bring messages to CNS
carry messages from CNS
between sensory & motor neurons in the CNS
receive stimulus and carries it impulses toward the cell body
Cell Body with nucleus
nucleus & most of cytoplasm
fiber which carries impulses away from cell body
cells which produce myelin or fat layer
lipid layer around the axon
Node of Ranvier
gaps or nodes in the myelin sheath
Where do impulses travel?
dendrite to cell body to axon
What does the neuron transmit?
What is the basic functional cell of the nervous system?
What are the three types of neurons?
-Mechanism - Na+ K+ pump
-Junction between neurons
Chemicals in the junction which allow impulses to be started in the second neuron
Lobes of the Cerebrum
Lobes of the Cerebrum diagram
-Attached to undersurface of brain
-Attached to spinal cord
Autonomic Nervous System
-Regulates bodies involuntary responses
Sympathetic nervous system
-Fight or flight
Parasympathetic nervous system
Normal everyday conditions
-generate receptor potentials and with enough summation
-generate action potentials in the neurons they are part of or synapse with
5 Types of Sensory Receptors
pressure receptors, stretch receptors, and specialized mechanoreceptors involved in movement and balance.
skin and viscera, respond to both external and internal temperature
stimulated by lack of O2, chemicals released from damaged cells and inflammatory cells
detect changes in levels of O2, CO2, and H+ ions (pH) as well as chemicals that stimulate taste and smell receptors
stimulated by light
-mediated by relatively complex sense organs of the head, innervated by cranial nerves
-eg. vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste and smell
General (somesthetic, somatosensory)
-receptors widely distributed in skin, muscles, tendons, joints, and viscera
-they detect touch, pressure, stretch, heat, cold and pain, blood pressure and chemistry
chemoreceptors (chemicals);Olfactory system
chemoreceptors; Taste receptors (new)
Major Sense Organs
Hot, cold, pressure, pain
Cornea and lens help produce what?
What do images look like when they reach retina?
The images are upside down and backwards
Taste Buds: Chemical receptors
-Top of nasal cavity
-Much of "taste" involves smell
touch, pressure, heat, cold, pain
What makes up Proprioceptors?
Stretch receptors in joints, ligaments, and tendons
What makes up Pain receptors?
skin, skeletal muscle and visceral
Senses in Skin
-Maintain some degree of continuous contraction (partial sustained contraction) or muscle tone
-Muscle spindles - modified muscle fibers with sensory nerve endings wrapped around the middle (and also found at the ends)
-Detect stretch and stimulate a reflex contraction
-Somatic nociceptors - from skin and skeletal muscle
-Visceral nociceptors - receptors that help maintain internal homeostasis
-Respond to stretch, lack of O2, chemicals released from damaged cells and inflammatory cells.
-Referred pain - visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain afferents, so sometimes the brain interprets the visceral pain as the more common somatic pain. Example - Often pain from the heart felt during a heart attack is perceived as a pain that originates in the left arm.
Disorders of the Nervous System
-Shingles (herpes zoster),
-Pink eye (conjunctivitis)
-Symptoms of disorders
-Treatments and prevention
Effects of drugs on the nervous system
Major Endocrine Organs
-Lumen and surfaces
-change in homeostatic environment
-signal sent to CNS
-signal sent from CNS
-body returns to homeostasis
What is the chemical messenger of the Endocrine system?
What are hormones made of?
-Secreted by endocrine gland
-Specific to target
-Activate cellular change
-Of 4 different chemical types
-specific chemical compound
-produced by a specific tissue of the body
-released in the body fluids
-carried to a distant target tissue
-affects a pre-existing mechanism
-effective is small amounts
Control of Endocrine Function
or Negative Feedback mechanisms
-Classic example: Action of Oxytocin on uterine muscle during birth.
Positive feedback example:
-Baby pushes on cervix
-Nervous signal to Hypothalamus
-Hypothal. manufactures OXY
-OXY transported to POSTERIOR PITUITARY & released
-OXY stimulates uterine contraction
-Loop stops when baby leaves birth canal
-Most common control mechanism
-Level of hormone in blood or body's return to homeostasis shuts off loop at hypothalamus and pituitary
Basic Structure of Feedback Loop
-Stimulates Control Center (Brain-hypothalamus)
-Hypothalamic hormones stimulate Pituitary
-Pituitary hormone stimulate Target area
-Target area produces change
-Change acts negatively or positively on the cycle.
The hypothalamus controls the secretions of the pituitary gland through nervous stimulation (posterior pituitary) and releasing hormones secreted to the anterior pituitary
-Synthesize and secrete hormones
-Extend from HYPOTHALAMUS to POSTERIOR PITUITARY
Release Inhibiting Hormones
-Prolactin release inhibiting hormone-PIH
-Thyrotropin releasing hormone-TRH
-Growth hormone releasing hormone-GHRH
Located at the base of the brain and is no larger than the size of a pea.
-Considered the most important part of the endocrine system and is often called the "master gland".
-Controls many other endocrine system glands. The pituitary gland helps control body and tissue growth.
-Also secretes endorphins, chemicals that reduce sensitivity to pain.
-Divided into anterior and posterior sections
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Manufactured in Hypothalamus, & released from Posterior Pituitary
-Target = smooth ms. Uterus and Breast (&brain)
-Function = labor and delivery, milk ejection,(pair bonding)
ADH (Vasopressin AVP)
-Target = kidneys
-Function = water reabsorption
-The pineal gland is located in the brain
-It secretes melatonin, which regulates our internal clocks and any rhythmic activities
-It plays a large role in our sleep and wake cycles
-It wraps around the trachea at the base of the neck
-Secretes a hormone called thyroxine
-Thyroxine regulates the metabolic rates of almost all the cells in the body
-As the thyroxine levels in the blood increase so does the rate of cellular respiration
-The thyroid gland needs iodine to create thyroxine, that is why salt is iodized now
(arrow down) T3 & T4 stim. Or environmental stim. Hypothalamus
TRH stim. Anterior Pituitary
TSH stim. Thyroid
(arrow up) T3 & T4 shuts off TRH and TSH production
These four little glands are embedded in the thyroid gland
They secrete parathyroid hormone which regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and its absorption by bones
-Located below the thyroid between the right and left lung
-Secretes thymosin which stimulates T-cell (that is a type of white blood cell) production in children.
-This gland shrinks with age as we are exposed to more germs and build up our stores of antibodies
-There are two located on top of the kidneys
-Medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine which regulate our fight or flight response at times of extreme stress
-Cortex secretes aldesterone which regulates reabsorption of nutrients from the kidney
-It also secretes cortisol which controls the rate of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
-Located behind the right side of the stomach
-Secretes insulin which tells the liver and muscles to remove sugar from the blood and store it as fat
-Also secretes glucagon which tells the liver to break down fat stores and release sugar back into the blood
-Secrete estrogen and progesterone which regulate the female menstrual cycle
-Endometrium in the uterus also secretes a female hormone when a fertilized egg binds to it to stop the menstrual cycle from progressing to menstruation
-Secretes male steroid hormones such as testosterone.
-Testosterone controls development of male characteristics such as formation of male sex organs in the womb, sperm development, and secondary sex characteristics at puberty (deep voice, facial hair, chest and armpit hair, etc.)
Hypersecretion (Endocrine disorder)
disorders are caused by too much hormone - these are much harder to treat
Hyposecretion (Endocrine disorder)
disorders are caused by too little hormone - they can be treated by addition of the hormone
Examples of the Endocrine System Disorders
increased levels of glucose in blood
low blood sugar
enlarged thyroid gland
-Can't fit through membrane
-Second messenger mechanism of action
peptide and amines
Protein hormones (1st messengers)
hormone (1st messenger)
generates chemical signal (2nd messenger) - most common is cAMP and IP3
2nd messenger chemical
Protein hormones (1st messengers)
bind to receptor on target cell triggering 2nd messenger to affect cell's activity
hormone (1st messenger)
does not enter the cell but binds to receptor on the plasma membrane receptors
activates G protein
generates chemical signal (2nd messenger)
most common is cAMP and IP3
2nd messenger chemical
signal activates other intracellular chemicals to produce response in target cell
-Travel in blood w/carrier
-Cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors
-change protein synthesis
bind to receptors within target cell and influence cell activity by acting on specific genes
diffuses freely into cell where cytoplasmic and/ or nuclear proteins serve as receptors and binds to receptor (hormone-receptor complex) complex bonds
to steroid response element (sections of DNA receptive to the hormone-receptor complex
hormone-receptor complex in steroid hormones
acts as transcription factor to turn target genes "on" or "off"
Basic functioning cell in the Nervous system- transmits signals from the body and brain.
Parts of a Neuron: Dendrite
Receives stimulus and carries it's impulses towards the body.
Parts of a Neuron: Cell Body
Contains Nucleus and most of the Cytoplasm in a Neuron.
Parts of a Neuron: Axon
The Fiber that carries impulses away from the Cell Body.
Cells which produce myelin or fat layer in the Peripheral Nervous System.
Dense lipid layer which insulates the axon - makes the axon look gray.
Node of Ranvier
Gaps or nodes in the myelin sheath.
Impulses travel. . .
From dendrite to cell body to axon.
Impulses DON'T travel. . .
From axon to cell body to dendrite.
Brings messages/signals to the Central Nervous System/Brain
Carry messages/signals from Central Nervous System/Brain
Lies between sensory and motor neurons in the Central Nervous System/Brain
What is Stimulus?
A stimulus is a change in the environment with sufficient strength to initiate a response.
What is Excitability?
Excitability is the ability of a neuron to respond to the stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse.
What is the All or Nothing Rule for Neurons?
The stimulus is either strong enough to start and impulse or nothing happens.
Impulses are. . .
. . . always the same strength along a given neuron and they are self-propagation - once it starts it continues to the end of the neuron in only one direction- from dendrite to cell body to axon
The Nerve Impulse causes. . .
. . . a movement of ions across the cell membrane of the nerve cell.
What is Synapse?
1. A small gap or space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another - the neurons do not actually touch at the synapse
2. It is junction between neurons which uses neurotransmitters to start the impulse in the second neuron or an effector (muscle or gland)
3.The synapse insures one-way transmission of impulses
Chemicals in the junction which allow impulses to be started in the second neuron.
Components of a Reflex Arc
A. Receptor - reacts to a stimulus
B. Afferent pathway (sensory neuron) - conducts impulses to the CNS
C. Interneuron - consists of one or more synapses in the CNS (most are in the spine)
D. Efferent pathway (motor neuron) conducts impulses from CNS to effector.
E. Effector - muscle fibers (as in the Hamstring muscle) or glands responds by contracting or secreting a product.
Initiated and completed at the spinal cord level. Occur without the involvement of higher brain centers.
Central Nervous System: The Brain
Brain stem - medulla, pons, mid-brain
Diencephalon - thalamus & hypothalamus
Central Nervous System: The Spine
The spinal cord is the highway for communication between the body and the brain.
What are Meninges?
Meninges are the three coverings around the brain & spine and help cushion, protect, and nourish the brain and spinal cord.
· dura mater is the most outer layer, very tough
· arachnoid mater is the middle layer and adheres to the dura mater and has weblike attachments to the innermost layer, the pia mater
· pia mater is very thin, transparent, but tough, and covers the entire brain, following it into all its crevices (sulci) and spinal cord
· cerebrospinal fluid, which buffers, nourishes, and detoxifies the brain and spinal cord, flows through the subarachnoid space, between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater
Coordination of movement and aspects of motor learning.
Conscious activity including perception, emotion, thought, and planning.
Brain's switchboard - filters and then relays information to various brain regions.
Controls vital reflexes as heartbeat and respiration.
Medulla, pons, and mid-brain (involuntary responses) and relays information from spine to upper brain.
involved in regulating activities internal organs, monitoring information from the autonomic nervous system, controlling the pituitary gland and its hormones, and regulating sleep and appetite.
· Is the largest portion of the brain encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass -
· It consists of two hemispheres divided by a fissure - corpus callosum
· It includes the cerebral cortex, the medullary body, and basal ganglia
· cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter because it has cell bodies and synapses but no myelin
o The cortex (thin layer of tissue) is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation or white fatty myelin sheath that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white.
o The cortex covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum and cerebellum
o The cortex consists of folded bulges called gyri that create deep furrows or fissures called sulci
o The folds in the brain add to its surface area which increases the amount of gray matter and the quantity of information that can be processed
· Medullary body - is the white matter of the cerebrum and consists of myelinated axons
o Commisural fibers - conduct impulses between the hemispheres and form corpus callosum
o Projection fibers - conduct impulse in and out of the cerebral hemispheres
o Association fibers - conduct impulses within the hemispheres
· Basal ganglia - masses of gray matter in each hemisphere which are involved in the control of voluntary muscle movements
Lobes of the Cerebrum
· Frontal - motor area involved in movement and in planning & coordinating behavior
· Parietal - sensory processing, attention, and language
· Temporal - auditory perception, speech, and complex visual perceptions
· Occipital - visual center - plays a role in processing visual information
· Broca's area - located in the frontal lobe - important in the production of speech
· Wernicke's area - comprehension of language and the production of meaningful speech
· Limbic System - a group of brain structures (amygdala, hippocampus, septum, basal ganglia, and others) that help regulate the expression of emotions and emotional memory.
What are Brain Waves?
Brain waves are rhythmic fluctuation of electric potential between parts of the brain as seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG).
What are the different types of Brain Waves?
Peripheral Nervous System
· 12 pair
· Attached to undersurface of brain
· 31 pair
· Attached to spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System (voluntary)
· Relays information from skin, sense organs & skeletal muscles to CNS
· Brings responses back to skeletal muscles for voluntary responses
Autonomic Nervous System (involuntary)
· Regulates bodies involuntary responses
· Relays information to internal organs
· Two divisions
o Sympathetic nervous system - in times of stress
§ Emergency response
§ Fight or flight
o Parasympathetic nervous system - when body is at rest or with normal functions
§ Normal everyday conditions
Major Sense Organs
Sensation and perception
Vision - Eye
Hearing - Ear
Taste - Taste receptors (new)
Smell - Olfactory system
Skin - Hot, cold, pressure, pain
Parts of the Eye
Three layers -
1. Outer layer consists of sclera and cornea
2. Middle layer consists of choroid, ciliary body and iris
3. Inner layer consists of retina
Sclera or Scleroid Layer(white of eye)
A tough protective layer of connective tissue that helps maintain the shape of the eye and provides an attachment for the muscles that move the eye
The clear, dome-shaped part of the sclera covering the front of the eye through which light enters the eye
A small chamber between the cornea and the pupil
The clear fluid that fills that anterior chamber of the eye and helps to maintain the shape of the cornea providing most of the nutrients for the lens and the cornea and involved in waste management in the front of the eye
middle layer of the eye containing many blood vessels
The ciliary body is a circular band of muscle that is connected and sits immediately behind the iris- produces aqueous humor, changes shape of lens for focusing, and
the pigmented front portion of the choroid layer and contains the blood vessels - it determines the eye color and it controls the amount of light that enters the eye by changing the size of the pupil (an albino only has the blood vessels - not pigment so it appears red or pink because of the blood vessels)
A crystalline structure located just behind the iris - it focuses light onto the retina
The opening in the center of the iris- it changes size as the amount of light changes (the more light, the smaller the hole)
A thick, transparent liquid that fills the center of the eye - it is mostly water and gives the eye its form and shape (also called the vitreous humor)
Sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye. It contains millions of photoreceptors (rods for black & white and cones for color ) that convert light rays into electrical impulses that are relayed to the brain via the optic nerve
The nerve that transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain
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