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70 terms

Classification

Fungi, Animalia, Plantae, and Plant Reproduction
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Vertebrate
Animals with a backbone. (ex. cats horses, and snakes)
Invertebrate
Animals without a backbone. (ex. worms and insects)
How are organisms classified into phyla?
Body organization (cells, tissue, and organ); Body symmetry (bilateral and radial); Number of body or germ layers (unspecialized tissue from which specialized tissue develop); Presence of a complete or incomplete digestive tract; The development, or absence, of an internal body cavity called a coelom. (Jeopardy Style Question - Answer with a question)
Phylum Arthropoda
Rigid external skeleton (exoskeleton) which is composed of chitin and acts as a waterproof armour.
Phylum Arthropoda
Specialized body segments (head, thorax, and abdomen)
Phylum Arthropoda
Well developed nervous system.
Phylum Arthroda
This phylum has specialized adaptations for gaining nourishment from other living organisms (ex. plants and animals)
Phylum Chordata
This phylum has bony skeletons and backbone.
They all Had
1) Dorsal nerve cord branching to all parts of their body.

2) A notochord, a rod of cartilage, which usually only occurs in the embryo and is replaced by the backbone.

3) Gill slits in the pharynx; these develop into the ear canal in human adults.
Phylum Chordata
This phylum in has examples of both Internal and external reproduction
Three circulatory pathways
1) Two-chambered heart (Fish)
2) Three-chambered heart (Reptiles and amphibions)
3) Four-chambered heart (Humans, crocodiles, and birds)
Hyphae
Body consists of a network of filaments.
Mycelium
A network of hyphae located under the soil.
Chitin
Hard material found in the exoskeleton of insects.
Septa
The partition that divides the cell in the hyphae.
Saprophyte
Break down dead matter and recycling nutrients.
Heterotrophs
An organism that is NOT capable of producing their own food. Therefore, they obtain their energy requirements by feeding on organic matter or another organism. Example: Fungi and Animals
Extracellular Digestion
Digestion of food outside the body.
Parasitic
Where they live on a plant or animal and the host is usually harmed.
Synbiotic
Where they live on plants or animals where both benefit.
Fragmentation
Asexually way for fungi to reproduce. Hyphae are broken off and grow into new mychelium.
Spores
Some fungi reproduce by spores. Spores may be sexual or asexual depending on the species.
Fungi
This kingdom has the ability to reproduce sexually as well as asexually.
Rhizopus stolonifera
Bread mould.
Stolon
Horizontal hyphae that spreads over the bread surface.
Rhizoid
Downward growing hyphae. The secrete enzymes that digest the surrounding food and absorbs the nutrients.
Zygospore
Are produced when mating strains (+,-) fuse their nuclei together to produce the diploid zygospore.
Sporagiophores
Asexual reproduction involes the production of a third type of hyphae.
Sporangium
At the top of the sporangiophores are the sporangium which produces the spores to be released when the capsule spits open.
Deuteromycotes
This is the type of mould that produces the strong flavours in some types of cheese.
Pollination Steps
Pollen lands on the stigma.; Pollen forms a long tube.; The tube grows down the style into the ovary.; Sperm in the pollen fertilizes the egg.; The embryo develops a protective coat which encases the fruit.
Pistil
The female reproductive organ.
Stigma
Traps pollen.
Style
Supports the stigma.
Ovary
Where eggs are produced.
Stamen
The male reproductive organ.
Anther
Sperm are produced.
Sepal
Protects the young flower.
Filament
Supports the anther.
Angiosperms
Animals, wind, and water aid in pollination.
Angiosperms
The prensence of sructures in plants specific to attracting certain animal pollinators whom the plants supply with food.
Angiosperms
The way the seeds are protected within the body of the plant's fruit.
Angiosperms
The function of fruits and specialized structures in seed dispersal.
Angiosperms
The presence of specialized tissues in plants to help them survive heat. cold, and drought.
Sporophyte
Produces spores
Under proper conditions the spores grow into
Gametophyte (Awnser)
Gametophyte
Produces egg & sperm. Needs moisture for sperm to travel.
The egg and sperm unite during sexual reproduction to produce a new
Sporophyte (Awnser)
Vascular Plants
Subdivided into 2 main categories: Seedless vascular plants (ex. Ferns) and Seed producing vascular plants (ex. Trees)
Seedless Vascular Plants
Reproduced by spores and have an alteration of generation life cycle (sporophyte and gametophyte).
Seed Producing Vascular Plants
Divided into 2 main groups. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
Evergreen trees
Angiosperms
Leaf and flowering plant trees
Vascular Plants
Subdivided into 2 main categories: Seedless vascular plants (ex. Ferns) and Seed producing vascular plants (ex. Trees)
Seedless Vascular Plants
Reproduced by spores and have an alteration of generation life cycle (sporophyte and gametophyte).
Seed Producing Vascular Plants
Divided into 2 main groups. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Non-Vascular Plants
No vascular tissue; use diffusion and osmosis for nutrient transport
Non-Vascular Plants
Very small plants
Non-Vascular Plants
Do not have roots, but have small root-like structures called rhizoids
Non-Vascular Plants
Contain three main divisions: mosses hornworts, and liverworts
Classification of Plants
Presence or absence of seeds and vascular tissue.
Seed
Structure made up of an embryo, stored food, and a water proof coat which allows a plant to survive periods of drought, freezing, fire, etc.
Vascular Tissue
Collection of cells arranged to carry solutions of dissolved minerals throughout the plant.
Zygospore
Are produced when mating strains (+,-) fuse thier nuclei together to produce the diploid zygospore.
Sporangiophores
Asexual reproduction involes the production of a third type of hyphae.
Sporangium
At the top of the sporangiophores are the sporangium which produces the spores to be released when the capsule spits open.
Deuteromycotes
This is the type of mold that produces the antibiotic penicillin. Deuteromycotes also produces the strong flavors in some types of cheese.
Reproduction of Fungi
Fungi have the ability to reproduce sexually as well as asexually.
Extracellular Digestion
Digestion of food outside the body.
Parasitic
Where they live on a plant or an animal and the host is usually harmed.