American Revolution/War Independence
Terms in this set (90)
What are mercenaries?
Where did the British army get its mercenaries from to fight the colonists?
Germany - known as Hessians
Who was Nathan Hale?
American Spy who was famous for saying, "I regret I have but one life to lose for my country."
Who was Daniel Morgan?
Leader of the Patriot sharpshooters who helped win at the Battle of Cowpens
Why were the British taxing the colonists so heavily?
to pay for the French and Indian War
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
Who was the King of England during the Revolution?
What does taxation without representations mean?
people who have no voice in their government should not be made to pay taxes
Why did Parliament feel they could tax the colonists?
England was paying to protect the colonists so they should help pay for that protection
Where were the first battles of the Revolution fought?
Lexington and Concord
Who was Samuel Adams?
leader of the Boston Tea Party and the Sons of Liberty
Why were the colonists angry over all the new taxes being put on them?
no taxation without representation, having to pay for the French and Indian War, felt mother country responsible for protecting colonies
What were the Townsend Acts?
1. Set up a new way to collect taxes
2. taxed goods like glass and paper
Why wouldn't the colonists like the Townsend Acts?
tax officials could search colonists property whenever they wanted without a warrant
What happened at the Boston Massacre?
British soldiers fired into a crowd of unarmed colonists killing 5
What was the East India Trading company and how did it cause problems in the colonies?
It was given a monopoly on the tea trade which meant that they could charge whatever price they wanted for tea and there was nothing the colonist could do about it
Who was Paul Revere?
Patriot who warned the minutemen in Lexington that the British were coming
Who was Patrick Henry?
Delegate of the 2nd Continental Congress who pushed for separate from England by famous saying "Give me Liberty or give me death".
Who was George Washington?
leader of the Continental Army
Who was Francis Marion?
known as the Swamp Fox - he raided British supply lines then hid in the swamps of South Carolina to escape capture
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
Letter sent to King George by the Continental Congress listing their grievances and asking the King to makes some changes to avoid war - the King rejected it
What does it mean when it is said that the battles of Lexington and Concord were the "shots heard around the world"?
the world was watching because it was the first time a colony was trying to gain independence from its controlling empire
What happened at the 2nd Continental Congress?
signing of the Declaration of Independence
What happened at the Battles of Bunker and Breed's Hill?
Patriots were winning until they ran out of ammunition and had to retreat
What were two colonial strengths during the Revolution?
1. knew the land
2. fighting for their independence
3. capable officers/leaders
What were two British strengths in the war?
1. trained military
2. lots of money and supplies
3. central working government
What were colonial weaknesses in the war?
1. no central government
2. untrained army
3. few supplies or money
What were some British weaknesses in the war?
1. fighting far from home
2. no public support ( English citizens hated the war)
3. didn't know the land or geography
Why is Benedict Arnold considered an American Traitor?
changed sides and tried to turn over West Point to the British before being discovered by the Culper Ring
What happened at the Battle of Yorktown?
1. Cornwallis moved his army to the end of a peninsula
2. Washington's army, aided by Rochambeau and Greene, blocked off the land side of the peninsula
3. French Navy, under Admiral de Grasse, kept the British Navy from rescuing Cornwallis
4. Cornwallis was forced to surrender the southern British army
5. effectively ended the war
What battle was teh turning point of the war for the Americans?
Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
turning point in the war - Patriot victory convinced the French to join the Americans
As a result of the victory at Saratoga, who decided to help the colonists?
Why was the French support so important to the colonists?
French would bring needed supplies, weapons, money, navy
Why did the French join the Americans against the British?
French hated the British and wanted to see them lose land and their honor
Why did the Americans have to fight battles in the frontier lands of Illinois and Indiana?
British were arming the Indians and encouraging them to fight colonists
Who owned the American colonies?
Who did the colonists fight in the American Revolution?
What is an indentured servant?
someone who agrees to be a servant in exchange for passage to America
1. said colonists could only trade with England
2. outlawed smuggling of goods
trade routes between colonies, Africa, and Caribbean
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
Who fought each other in the French and Indian war?
British/Colonists vs. Indians/French
Who won the French and Indian War?
What did the British get for winning the French and Indian War?
Canada and all land east of the Mississippi River
What is the only tax Parliament didn't repeal as a result of the colonists boycott pressure?
What four nations ruled over North America in the 1700's?
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
British law that said no settlements west of the Appalachian mts.
What caused the French and Indian War?
land dispute between the French and British over the Ohio River valley
Important fort in French and Indian War - whomever controlled the fort controlled the Ohio River Valley
What is the difference between the American Revolution and the War for Independence?
American Revolution - events leading up to the war
War for Independence - actual battles and war itself
What were minutemen?
colonists who were ready to fight for the Patriots at a minutes notice
What was the Boston Tea Party?
event in Boston Harbor when Patriots dumped tea into the harbor to protest the tax on tea
What did the British do as a result of the Boston Tea Party?
passed the intolerable acts
1. colonists had to house soldiers in their homes (Quartering act)
2. no more colonial control over their governments
3. martial law in Boston (closed the harbor)
Why was the Boston Tea party held?
protest the tax on tea
Why did British General Howe flee to Canada and leave Boston for the Patriots in 1775?
US had cannons from Ft. Ticonderoga on the hills surrounding Boston
allowing all types of relgions to practice openly
strict control of trade by a government
Admiral de Grasse
French navy admiral who led the French navy to blockade the British at Yorktown
first person killed by the British in the Boston Massacre
wrote a pamphlet arguing for independence called "Common Sense" - remember common sense is painful :)
Georges Rogers Clark
Patriot leader who fought the Indians in the frontier lands of Illinois and Indiana
founding father at both Continental Congresses, signed Declaration of Independence - would become 1st VP and 2nd President under the Constitution
British general who led British troops in the southern colonies - would surrender to Washington at Yorktown ending the war
British commander at Bunker Hill and Lexington/Concord who would eventually be forced to evacuate Boston
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined the Patriots and would become Washington's right hand man
John Paul Jones
Patriot sea captain of the Bohemme Richard, who captured the British warship the Serepis in an epic battle
Baron von Steuben
German officer who aided the Patriots by training the troops to fight at Valley Forge
first capitol of the United States
colonists still loyal to King George - didn't support the Patriot cause
leader of the Green Mountain Boys who took control of Ft. Ticonderoga's cannons
Battle of Trenton
Patriot victory over the Hessians when they crossed the Deleware River and surpised the Hessians on Christmas Day
Battles of New York and Long Island
British take over New York City and Patriots are forced to retreat - major Patriot defeat
Battle of Cowpens
Greene and Morgan defeat British forces with a fake out plan - Morgan lures British army into a trap where they run into Greene's hidden army
Patriot general in the southern colonies who is chased by Cornwallis until Greene traps Cornwallis at Yorktown - Green County, Wisconsin is named after him
Spy group in New York led by Washington
captured by the patriots early in the war and whose cannons were used to surround the British in Boston
Patriot general who won at Saratoga but ran away in disgrace after his defeat in the Battle of Camden
Famous statesman and inventor who was sent to convince France to help Patriots
President of the Continental Congress who signed the Declaration of Independence
What was the last battle of the war?
What were the new American boundaries as a result of the War for Independence?
N- Canada, S- Florida, W- Mississippi river
Who was Rochambeau?
French noble who helped Patriots in the Battle of Yorktown
What natural rights were listed in the Declaration of Independence?
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
What was the Stamp Act?
tax on paper products
What was the Sugar Act?
tax on sugar
What was the Tea tax?
tax on tea
What was the Quebec Act?
gave land promised to the colonies to Canada
What was the Quartering Act?
forced colonists to house British soldiers in their homes