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This is a cognitive process in which members of an ingroup are viewed more positively than members of an outgroup.

ingroup favoritism

Which of the following will DECREASE obedience?

holding each person responsible for his or her own behavior

Need _____ is the tendency to be attracted to people whose qualities we admire but personally lack.


"Birds of a feather flock together" illustrates need _____, and "opposites attract" illustrates need _____.

compatibility; complementarity

The study of how other people influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions is called _____.

social psychology

In most Eastern cultures, men prefer women with power and financial status over beauty. ( True or False)


Nonverbal courtship signaling is a scientific term for _____.


The two major attribution mistakes people make are _____.

the fundamental attribution error and self-serving bias

The fact that husbands and wives both report doing more than 50% of the household chores is an example of _____.

the self-serving bias

What are three factors that explain why people conform?

normative social influence, informational social influence, and reference groups

The desires to maintain self-esteem and look good to others are two motivations for the use of _____.

the self-serving bias

When someone has a need for approval and acceptance by a group, they often conform to the norms set by that group. This is called _____ social influence.


Research on the mere exposure effects suggests that we will like a photograph of ourselves better if it is _____, and our friends will prefer our photograph if it is _____.

reversed; not reversed

According to research, which of the following does NOT reduce aggression?

channeling aggressive impulses into harmless

When a natural disaster strikes, members of a community who previously distrusted or fought with each other often work together to deal with the aftermath. Once the emergency is over, there is usually a decrease in prejudice as a result of _____.

increased contact and cooperation brought on by the common goal

According to your text, a MAJOR role of romantic love may be that it _____.

provides a period of attachment that becomes the foundation for a more enduring type of love

This form of behavior is intended to harm someone.


Undoing negative associations and learning positive ones, and selectively attending to similarities rather than differences are examples of _____.

cognitive retraining

A constructive way to maintain companionate love is to _____.

overlook each other's faults

When you attempt to maintain a positive self-image by taking credit for your
successes and emphasizing external causes for your failures, you are engaged in _____.

using the self-serving bias

Cognitive include _______

(Thoughts) stereotypes

Attitude include ______

(Feelings) Emotions

Behavior include _______

(Actions) predispositions to discriminate against members of a group.

Attributing people's behavior to internal causes rather than external factors in the _________

Fundamental Attribution Error usually common when judging others.

what is the " just- world" phenomenon?

the common thought that people usually get what they deserve

taking credit for our success and blaming the situation for our failures is _________

Self-serving bias

The BEST method parents can use to get their children to do their chores is to _____.

reward them after they do the chores

Eli's grandma gives him a Tootsie roll every time she visits. When Eli sees his grandma arriving, his mouth begins to water. In this example, the conditioned stimulus (CS) is _____.


Ten days in a row Frank felt a static electric shock when he kissed his wife on the living room carpet. Now he feels mildly anxious whenever he approaches his wife to kiss her. In classical conditioning , his wife was a(n) _____ stimulus ten days ago, and has now become a(n) _____ stimulus.

neutral; conditioned

Although Henrietta extinguished her fear of spiders several months ago, she suddenly gasped in horror and felt her heart pounding when she saw an itsy-bitsy spider on her desk. This is an example of _____.

spontaneous recovery

A program that designates the rate or interval at which a response is reinforced is called a _____.

schedule of reinforcement

What seems to be the outcome of observational learning television shows that have addressed social issues such as adult literacy in Mexico and AIDS in Africa?

The outcome appears to be extremely positive

A Vietnam veteran experiences an intense emotional reaction to a clap of thunder. His emotional response is an example of a(n) _____.

CR controlled response

Extinction occurs in _____ conditioning when the UCS and CS are no longer paired; extinction occurs in _____ conditioning, when reinforcement is withheld.

classical; operant

According to Skinner's principles of instrumental conditioning, reinforcement and punishment must come _____ the response.


A Skinner box is the name for the _____.

apparatus used to study the effects of reinforcement on animal behavior

George gets paid on Fridays for a week's work; Mai-ling gets paid for every five wedding veils she completes. George is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement, while Mai-ling is on a _____ schedule.

fixed interval; fixed ratio

Dan and Jenny spank Nolan when he pulls the dog's tail. They are using _____ to teach Jimmy not to pull the dog's tail.

positive punishment

The BEST motto for the timing of reinforcement or punishment is _____.

The sooner the better.

There are some behaviors that cannot be _____ conditioned because biological preparedness suggests that a species will favor natural instinctive behaviors to those being reinforced.


After an accident with a red car last month, Giorgio gets nervous when he sees a red car, but not when he sees a red truck or van. This is an example of ______.

stimulus discrimination in classical conditioning.

Which of the following develops gradually during the course of conditioning?

CS, Conditioned Stimulus

who were influential in early studies of cognitive learning?

Wolfgang Kohler and E.C. Tolman

Partial reinforcement occurs when _____.

some, but not all, correct responses are rewarded

A _____ schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for a behavior in an unpredictable manner (e.g., the number or amount of response/reinforcement varies).

variable ratio

According to your text, a rat raised in an enriched versus a deprived environment typically develops

a thicker cerebral cortex

Who created the Classical conditioning learning theory?

Ivan Pavlov (1849- 1936)

Who is B.F. Skinner?

he extended Thorndike's law and created the operant conditioning learning theory.

What is Reinforcement?

it is either adding or taking away a stimulus to strengthen a response and increasing the likelihood of the event happening again

What is Punishment?

it is either adding or taking away a stimulus to weaken a response and decrease the likelihood of the event happening again

With regard to sexuality, spectatoring is the act of _______

mentally watching and evaluating responses during sex

What is the sensate focus exercise?

to caress each other while communicating what is pleasurable to each of them, and to avoid setting any performance goals.

Male hormones administered prenatally to female sheep and rats increases male-mounting behavior as they mature. (True or False)


The discharge of semen and seminal fluid from the penis during orgasm is called _____

An ejaculation

Bradford wears female clothing because it is sexually arousing; Bradford is an example of ____


Billy wears female clothing because he believes he is female and wants others to perceive him this way. Billy is an example of _______


(True or False )the corpus callosum is larger in men.


Franklin tested HIV positive. This MOST likely means that he___________

has been infected by one of the human immunodeficiency viruses

Premature ejaculation occurs when a male _____.

has no control over a rapid ejaculation at least 50% of the time

The part of the nervous system that reflexively responds to stroking or touching of the genitals is the _____.

spinal cord

A homosexual orientation appears to be the result of _____.

unknown factors

A watery, clear discharge or a yellow discharge from the penis is MOST likely to indicate a(n) _____ infection.

chlamydia or gonorrhea

Which of the following sexual dysfunctions is MOST likely to have an organic cause?

erectile disorders

Men appear to be innately superior to women in tests of spatial ability. However, women practicing a video game were able to catch up to men after only 10 hours playing the game. Researchers speculate this change may be due to ________.

both a and b( using parts of the brain that were not in use before)

Which of the following has been formally condemned by the United Nations and the World Health Organization?

female genital mutilation

Amanda knows she is a girl, which means she has acquired _____.

a gender identity

Viewing one's own ethnic group (or culture) as central and "correct," and then judging the rest of the world according to this standard is known as _____.


What are sexual scripts?

Schema for sexual encounters learned through society and culture. (ex: when a doctor caresses your breast for a procedure= no sexual arousal , when your male partner does the same procedure= sexual arousal.)

The hormonal dimension of sex is defined as the predominance of _____ for females, and _____ for males.

estrogens; androgens

Why is Kinsey important?

because he was the first person to do a major survey of human sexuality behaviors. ( 18000 participants)

what is Masters and Johnson's sexual responce cycle?

1. excitement phase, 2. plateau phase, 3. orgasm phase, 4. resolution phase.

what is the refractory period?

period where further excitement to orgasm in considered impossible

what is androgyny?

it is expressing both "masculine" and "feminine" traits

what are gonads?

testes or ovaries

what is sex?

sex is biological factors ovaries or testes breast or no breast vagina or penis, it also refers to sexual intercourse

what is gender?

gender is how you identify yourself, its psychological and social-cultural.

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