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63 terms

General Psychology

Chapters 9-11
STUDY
PLAY
high; low
Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ________ reliability and ________ validity.
125
An 8-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of
add new words to their vocabulary
The principles of learning emphasized by B. F. Skinner are most helpful in explaining why children
overconfidence
Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit
the Flynn effect
Increasing years of schooling over the last half century have most likely contributed to
belief perseverance
When her professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised for a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Although she subsequently learned that the professor's limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, she continued thinking the professor was unfriendly. Judy's reaction best illustrates
24
The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of ________ months.
prototype
We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ________ of a bird.
heritability
The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence.
framing
Students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of
savant syndrome
Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as
emotional intelligence
When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates
spelling bee
Girls are likely to outperform boys in a
representative heuristic
A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of
factor analysis
Which procedure is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie people's intelligence scores?
analytical intelligence
Superior performance on the Stanford-Binet most clearly corresponds with Sternberg's concept of
linguistic determination
Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This illustrates
stereotype threat
Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of
babbling
Vocal sounds that are not included in one's native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ________ stage of language development.
a critical period
Those who learn sign language as teens never become as fluent as children exposed to sign language from birth. This best illustrates the importance of ________ for mastering language.
an algorithm
To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of
cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness
Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to
the resolution phase
During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?
decrease in their metabolic rate
In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)
decrease in their metabolic rate
In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)
"Reduce your weight gradually over a period of several months."
According to researchers, which of the following would be the BEST advice or encouragement to offer someone who wants to lose excess weight?
ventromedial hypothalamus; overeat
Destruction of the ________ causes an animal to ________.
anorexia nervosa
Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of
instinct theory
Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetic predispositions?
homosexual behavior
When pregnant sheep were injected with testosterone during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring later demonstrated
bulimia nervosa
To lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of
self-esteem
Our ________ is said to be a gauge of how socially accepted we feel.
obesity
One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of
maintain homeostasis
By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to
STIs
Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to ________ because of their lower levels of protective antibodies.
belongingness
The stress normally experienced by immigrants is lessened by chain migration. This best illustrates the importance of ________ needs.
With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation
Which of the following is NOT true with respect to sexual orientation?
sleep deprivation
People are more vulnerable to obesity if they experience
drive-reduction theory
Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation?
incentives
Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of
resistance
The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by
relative deprivation
Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the
facial feedback effect
If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the
the James-Lange theory
If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of
James-Lange theory; two-factor theory
Evidence that emotion precedes physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the ________. Evidence that emotion comes after mentally labeling our physiological arousal would be most consistent with the ________.
stress appraisal
One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of
the catharsis hypothesis
Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates
dilation of his pupils
Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
epinephrine
The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of ________ into the bloodstream.
adaptation-level phenomenon
A celebrity actress experiences ever-increasing levels of professional acclaim following each successful movie role. Yet with each success, she experiences no more than a temporary surge of subjective well-being. This is best explained in terms of the
left frontal lobe
Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the
believe they cannot change a stressful situation
People tend to use emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping strategies when they
respiration
A lie detector test using a polygraph monitors a person's
bone marrow
B lymphocytes are formed in the
Andre, a competitive, easily-angered journalist
Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
facial expressions
The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through
emotion-focused coping
After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior best illustrates
survive longer
Religiously active AIDS patients ________ than do their nonreligious counterparts
increases; increases
Aerobic exercise ________ the body's production of serotonin and ________ its production of the endorphins.
amygdala
The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the
lying
We find it especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are
guilty knowledge test
An approach to lie detection that assesses a suspect's physiological response to details of a crime known only to police investigators is called the