26 terms

Ch. 7 Sec 7-1 & 7-2

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cell
basic unit of all forms of life
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier that surronds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cell theory
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
prokaryote
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
magnification
the increase of an object's apparent size by using lenses or mirrors
micrograph
a photograph taken through a microscope
resolution
the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together
cell wall
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
cytoplasm
in eukaryotic cells, all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokaryotic cells, all of the cells' contents
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
Golgi apparatus
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
lipid bilayer
flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surrondings
lysosome
cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteind into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a cell
mitochondrion
cell organelle that converts the chemical eergy stored in food into compounds that are tmore convenient for the cell to use
nucleus
the center of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
nucleolus
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
ribosome
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled; smooth and rough
selectively permeable
property of biological membranes that allows some substanced to pass across it while others cannot; also called semipermeable membrane
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
vesicles
Small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell