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a reference in a work of literature to something outside the work, especially to a well-known historical or literary event, person, or work.


a speaker's, author's, or haracter's disposition toward or opinion of a subject.


iterms or parts that make up a larger picture or story

devices of sound

the techniques of deploying the sound of words, especially in poetry (rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia)


word choice (any word that is important to the meaning and the effect of a passage)

figurative language

writing that uses vigures of speech (as opposed to literal language or that which is actual or specifically denoted) such as metaphor, simile, and irony


the sensory details of a work; the visual, auditory, or tactile images evoked by the words of a literary work or the images that figurative language evokes


a figure of speech in which intent and actual meaning differ, characteristically blame for praise and praise for blame


a figurative use of language in which a comparison is expressed without the use of a comparative term like "as" or "like" or "than"

narrative techniques

the method involved in telling a story; the procedures used by a writer of stories or accounts.

omniscient point of view

the vantage point of a story in which the narrator can know, see, and report whatever he or she chooses.

point of view

any of several possible vantage points from which a story is told (may be omniscient, limited to that of a single character, or limited to that of several characters).

resources of language

a general phrase for the linguistic devices or techniques that a writer can use.

rhetorical techniques

the devices used in effective or persuasive language; contrast, repetitions, paradox, understatement, sarcasm, and rhetorical questions.


writing that seeks to arouse a reader's disapproval of an object by ridicule.


the background to a story.


a directly expressed comparison (like, as, than, etc).

strategy (or rhetorical strategy)

the management of language for a specific effect; the planned placing of elements to achieve an effect.


the arrangement of materials within a work; the relationship of the parts of a work to the whole.


the mode of expression in language; diction, syntax, figurative language, imagery, selection of detail, sound effects, ton


something that is simultaneously itself and a sign of something else (winter, darkness, cold, etc)


the structure of a sentence; the arrangement of words in a sentence; length vs. brevity of sentences, questions vs. exclamations vs. declarative sentences, etc.


the main thought expressed by a work.


the manner in which an author expresses his or her attitude; the intonation of the voice that expresses meaning.

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