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Old South

"antebellum era" 1830-1860 southern slave labor states that produced cotton which dominated the economy of the South

Upper South

Designation used in the Civil War encompassing the states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas

Lower/Deep South

expanding agricultural regions in new states of the Southwest

VA legislature debates 1831-32

debate over emancipation proposals; narrow defeat marked turning point; opposition to slavery weakened

"King Cotton"

cotton and cotton-growing considered, in the pre-Civil War South, as a vital commodity, the major factor not only in the economy but also in politics.

Three-Fifths Clause

Allowed three-fifths of all slaves to be counted for congressional representation and, thereby, in the Electoral College that selected the president.

Tredegar Iron Works

large iron factory that operated in Richmond, Virginia, in the early to mid-1800s

Hinton R. Helper

Southern-born author whose book attacking slavery's effects on whites aroused northern opinion

The Impending Crisis of the South

trouble-brewing book written in 1857 by Hinton R. Helper, attempting to prove that slavery hurt non-slaveholding whites the most

planter class

large slave owners who formed a minority but dominated political and economic power

small slaveholders

generally owned fewer than 20 slaves; some aspired to planter status while others followed example of yeomen; led westward push


farmers who did not own slaves; made up majority of the population

people of the pine barrens

Squatters who lived in the South and owned no land and no slaves

"peculiar institution"

Another term for slavery; The owning of human beings existed in a country that practiced liberty.

"positive good"

an argument used by slavery supporters claiming slavery had benefits for the slaves as well as the United States.

"necessary evil"

Thomas Jefferson's position that slavery was wrong but necessary

George Fitzhugh

He wrote "Sociology for the South," a book that supported slavery.

The Code of Honor

Explain the middle colonies social structure.

antebellum free blacks

Lived in cities and rural areas; became carpenters, coopers, barbers, and even small traders; formed their own fraternal orders and churches; some had their own literary journals and opera; some were highly successful, but all were vulnerable; segregation; feelings of racial solidarity

Gabriel Prosser

In 1800 this slave planned a slave uprising that was betrayed by other slaves. Prosser and his followers were executed.

Denmark Vesey

United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)

Nat Turner

United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia

Underground Railroad

a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada

Henry "Box" Brown

Runaway slave famous for mailing himself in a box to Philadelphia

Frederick Douglass

United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)

Harriet Tubman

Former slave who helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad

Josiah Henson

An African American that escaped slavery and wrote about slaves' poor living conditions

slave resistance

Labor slowdowns, breaking tools, running away, and performing tasks improperly.

African-American Antebellum Culture

Drew on both African and American sources, but was more than a mixture of the two; language = "pidgin," can be used by people w/ diff. native languages to communicate; religion = diverse beliefs incl. Methodist and Baptist, native African religions; expressed feelings in music and dance

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