The most significant result was an increase in female participation.
number of high school girls participating in interscholastic sports increased from 300,000 in 1971 to 3.11 million in 2008. By the 2008 school year, 41.3 percent
of all high school participants were female,budgets for women's sports improved dramatically, from less than 1 percent of the men's budgets and no athletic scholarships in 1970 to 38 percent of the men's budgets and 33 percent
of the scholarship budgets in 2008. Despite this marked improvement, women athletes remain underfunded. Although women account for 57 percent of the college student population, female athletes receive only 43 percent of participation opportunities. And male athletes receive $179 million more in athletic scholarships than their female counterparts (Lopiano 2008). This inequality is reinforced by unequal media attention, the scheduling of games (men's games are always the featured games), and the increasing lack of women in positions of
power. One ironic consequence of Title IX has been that as opportunities for female athletes increased and programs expanded, the opportunities for women as coaches and administrators diminished. In the early 1970s, most coaches of women's intercollegiate teams were women. By 2008, 46 percent of women's team coaches were women
Women make up a large percentage of the nation's classroom teachers but a much smaller percentage of school district superintendents.
In 2008, women comprised 81 percent of all elementary
school teachers, more than half of all secondary school teachers (56 percent), and 65 percent of all school administrators (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2009b).
As the level of education increases, the proportion of women teachers declines. In the 2007-2008 academic year (more than 20 years after the Office of Civil Rights issued guidelines spelling out the obligations of colleges and universities in the development of affirmative action programs), women represented only 45 percent of full-time faculty. Furthermore, they remained overwhelmingly in the lower faculty ranks, where faculty are much less likely
to hold tenure. In 2009, women comprised 26 percent of full professors, 39 percent of associate professors, 47 percent of assistant professors, and 53 percent of
instructors/lecturers. Since 1986, the percentage of college presidents has doubled—from 10 percent to 23 percent of the total in 2009 (National Center for Education Statistics 2008). Although women now hold a greater percentage of
the top positions at colleges and universities than ever before, women presidents remain underrepresented in comparison to their share of all faculty and senior staff positions
Language perpetuates male dominance by ignoring, trivializing, and sexualizing women. Use of the pronoun he when the sex of the person is unspecified and
of the generic term mankind to refer to humanity in general are obvious examples of how the English language ignores women. Common sayings such as "that's women's work" (as opposed to "that's men's work!"), jokes about female
drivers, and phrases such as women and children first or wine, women, and song are trivializing. Women, more than men, are commonly referred to in terms that
have sexual connotations. Terms referring to men (studs, jocks) that do have sexual meanings imply power and success, whereas terms applied to women
(broads, bimbos, hos) imply promiscuity or subordination. In fact, the term promiscuous is usually applied only to women, although its literal meaning applies to either sex
Research shows that there are many derogatory terms for women, but there are few for men generically.. Not only are there fewer derogatory terms that refer to men, but often
such terms are considered derogatory because they invoke the images of women.
Most U.S. religions follow a typical pattern. The clergy is male, while the vast majority of worshipers are women.
women and men are equal in the
eyes of the deity, women are to some degree subordinated to men . Limiting discussion to the Judeo-Christian heritage,
let us examine some teachings from the Old and New Testaments regarding the place of women. The Old Testament established male supremacy in many ways.
only three-fifths the wages of men: "If a male from 20 to 60 years of age, the equivalent is 50 shekels of silver by the sanctuary weight; if it is a female, theequivalent is 30 shekels"
percent of females seminary exploded yet women made up only 14.8 percent of the nation's clergy. Across the United States, women clergy are struggling for equal rights, bumping up against what many call a "stained glass
ceiling." Today, half of all religious denominations in the United States ordain women. At the same time, the formal rules and practices discriminate against women. In denominations that ordain women and those that do not, women often fill the same jobs: leading small churches, directing special church programs, preaching, and evangelizing . Despite the opposition of organized religion, many women are making advances within established
churches and leaving their mark on the ministerial profession.
Women received the right to vote in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified. Although women make up a very small percentage of officeholders, 1992 was a turning point for women in politics. Controversies such as Anita Hill's harassment allegations, the abortion rights battle, and the lack of representation
at all levels of politics propelled women into the political arena. In 1992, Congress experienced its biggest influx of women (and minorities) in history. Subsequent elections have increased the number of women in our national
legislature. As of 2009, 17 U.S. senators are women, and 73 women are in the House of Representatives (Center for American Women and Politics 2009).) If Congress were
representative of the nation, the Senate would have 51 women and the House
The gender gap in our nation's capital is scandalous. In Washington, D.C.'s less visible workforce of professional staff employees, women hold 60 percent
of the jobs, but they are nowhere equal to men. Congress has two classes of personal staff employees: highly paid men who hold most of the power and lowerpaid
women who are relegated to clerical and support staff. Many answer the phones and write letters to constituents—invisible labor that is crucial to their boss's reelection.
over 16% law makers in congress
65 countries do better by electing women in legislature
Women's labor force participation has grown at a faster pace than men's in recent decades. Between 1970 and the early 1990s, women's number in the labor
force increased twice as fast as those of men. At present, women's rate of labor force participation is holding steadily, while men's is declining slightly. Today, as
in the past, the proportions of employed women vary by race. African American women have had a long history of high workforce participation rates. In 2004,
they edged ahead of other women. By 2008, they participated in the labor force at a rate of 61 percent; 59 percent of White women were in the labor force in 2008,
compared with 56 percent of Hispanic women
Although women's labor force participation rates have risen, the gap between women's and men's earnings has remained relatively constant for three decades.
The pay gap between women and men has narrowed. It hovered between 70 and 74 percent throughout the 1990s. In 2009, women earned 78.2 cents for every dollar men earned. Closing the wage gap has been slow, amounting to
less than half a cent per year! "At this rate, 87 more years could go by before women and men reach parity" (Sklar 2004c).
For women of color, earning discrimination is even greater. Women's incomes are lower than men's in every racial group. Among women and men working year-round and full-time in 2008, White women earned 80 percent of
White men's earnings; Black women earned 89 percent of Black men's earnings; Hispanic women earned 89 percent of Hispanic men's earnings. The earnings gap affects the well-being of women and their families. If women earned the same as men, their annual family incomes would rise by $4,000. and poverty rates would be cut in half. Their
lost earnings could have bought a home, educated their children, and been set aside for retirement
Men with professional degrees may expect to earn almost $2 million more than their female counterparts . if women were men with the same credentials, they would earn substantially more. women's and men's credentials explain some differences, but experience accounts for only one-third of the wage gap. The largest part of the wage gap is caused by sex discrimination in the labor market that blocks women's access to the better-paying jobs through hiring, promotion, and simply paying women less than men in any job
Gender inequality in this society has led to feminist social movements. . The first stage grew from the abolition movement of the 1830s. Working to abolish slavery, women found that they could not function as equals with their male abolitionist friends. They became convinced that women's freedom was as important
as freedom from slavery. In July 1848, the first convention in history devoted to issues of women's position and rights was held at Seneca Falls, New York. Participants
in the Seneca Falls convention approved a declaration of independence,sserting that men and women are created equal and that they are endowed with certain inalienable rights. During the Civil War, feminists for the most part turned their attention to the emancipation of Blacks. After the war and the ratification of the Thirteenth
Amendment abolishing slavery, feminists were divided between those seeking far-ranging economic, religious, and social reforms and those seeking voting
rights for women. The second stage of feminism gave priority to women's suffrage. The women's suffrage amendment, introduced into every session of Congress
from 1878 on, was ratified on August 26, 1920—nearly three-quarters of a century after the demand for women's suffrage had been made at the Seneca
Falls convention. From 1920 until the 1960s, feminism was dormant. "So much energy had been expended in achieving the right to vote that the women's
25 to 50 twins(gay). 99.3 same sex un-married partners in all counties in the U.S. 2% of all adults are gay.
study found that the incidence rate of homosexual desire was 7.7 percent for men and 7.5 percent for women, whereas the rate at which men identify themselves as gay was 2.8 percent, and the rate for which women identify
themselves as lesbians was 1.4 percent
565,000 same-sex couples living in the
• More than 1 in 4 (nearly 150,000) identified themselves as "spouses." Same sex spouses were identified in every state.
In 2005, there were an estimated 8.8 million gay, lesbian, and bisexual people (single and coupled) living in the United States
CITIES GAYS MOSTLY LIVED: Castro district in San Francisco and Greenwich Village in New York City.
VERMONT HAS THE HIGHEST IN THE NATION
San Francisco, Fort Lauderdale, Santa Rosa, Seattle, and New York top thelist of metropolitan areas for gay male couples to live, and the top cities for lesbian couples are Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, San Francisco, and
3. Gay and lesbian couples are most likely to live in college towns, resort communities,and state capitals.
9 states legally recognize gay marriage. CN, IA, MA, NH, VT, CT
2012: Maine, Maryland, Washington and the district of columbia
join Belgium,Canada, the Netherlands, South Africa, Norway, Sweden, and Spain in allowing same-sex marriage
57% SAID IT SHOULD NO BE RECOMMENDED BY LAW
60% SAID YES YOUNGER GENERATION(18-29)
Florida, Mississippi, and Utah have laws that explicitly prohibit homosexual individuals and/or couples from adopting children, and Michigan has prohibited same-sex couples from adopting but does not prohibit single homosexual individuals from adopting. Other states may not explicitly prohibit same-sex adoption but may have requirements that only married couples may adopt, which thus prohibits same-sex couples from adopting. Despite restrictions, an estimated 65,500 adopted children are living with a lesbian or gay parent
On October 11, 1987, the largest gay rights demonstration occurred when approximately 250,000 lesbians, gay men, and their supporters marched in Washington, D.C. They held a parade, had a huge marriage ceremony to protest
the laws forbidding the marriage of gays, mourned their comrades who had died of AIDS, staged a mass civil disobedience action at the U.S. Supreme Court
to protest the 1986 decision upholding state sodomy laws (840 people were arrested), and joined with other activist groups. The Reverend Jesse Jackson
spoke at the rally:
• At the time of Stonewall, forty-eight states had sodomy laws meant to outlaw
• In 1969, no state or local government had a law protecting the civil rights of homosexuals. In 1996, the Supreme Court in Romer v. Evans ruled that states
and municipalities had the duty to protect gays from discrimination.
the Supreme Court overturned efforts by states to treat gays as second-class citizens.
• In another groundbreaking decision, the Supreme Court in 1998 ruled unanimously that sexual discrimination in the workplace applies to harassment between workers of the same sex. This ruling gives civil rights protections to all employees, male or female, homosexual or heterosexual, something unheard of in 1969.
• In 1994, more than 11,000 athletes from forty-four countries competed in Gay Games IV in New York City, an event beyond imagination in 1969; in 2006, Chicago hosted the games with approximately 12,000 participants.
• In 1997, there were approximately 100 gay-straight alliances (GSAs)—clubs for gay and gay-friendly kids—on U.S. high school campuses. Today there are at least 3,000 GSAs. In the 2004-2005 academic year, GSAs were
established at the rate of three per day (Cloud 2005).