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Terms in this set (37)

Women received the right to vote in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified. Although women make up a very small percentage of officeholders, 1992 was a turning point for women in politics. Controversies such as Anita Hill's harassment allegations, the abortion rights battle, and the lack of representation
at all levels of politics propelled women into the political arena. In 1992, Congress experienced its biggest influx of women (and minorities) in history. Subsequent elections have increased the number of women in our national
legislature. As of 2009, 17 U.S. senators are women, and 73 women are in the House of Representatives (Center for American Women and Politics 2009).) If Congress were
representative of the nation, the Senate would have 51 women and the House

The gender gap in our nation's capital is scandalous. In Washington, D.C.'s less visible workforce of professional staff employees, women hold 60 percent
of the jobs, but they are nowhere equal to men. Congress has two classes of personal staff employees: highly paid men who hold most of the power and lowerpaid
women who are relegated to clerical and support staff. Many answer the phones and write letters to constituents—invisible labor that is crucial to their boss's reelection.

over 16% law makers in congress
65 countries do better by electing women in legislature

Women's labor force participation has grown at a faster pace than men's in recent decades. Between 1970 and the early 1990s, women's number in the labor
force increased twice as fast as those of men. At present, women's rate of labor force participation is holding steadily, while men's is declining slightly. Today, as
in the past, the proportions of employed women vary by race. African American women have had a long history of high workforce participation rates. In 2004,
they edged ahead of other women. By 2008, they participated in the labor force at a rate of 61 percent; 59 percent of White women were in the labor force in 2008,
compared with 56 percent of Hispanic women
Although women's labor force participation rates have risen, the gap between women's and men's earnings has remained relatively constant for three decades.
The pay gap between women and men has narrowed. It hovered between 70 and 74 percent throughout the 1990s. In 2009, women earned 78.2 cents for every dollar men earned. Closing the wage gap has been slow, amounting to
less than half a cent per year! "At this rate, 87 more years could go by before women and men reach parity" (Sklar 2004c).
For women of color, earning discrimination is even greater. Women's incomes are lower than men's in every racial group. Among women and men working year-round and full-time in 2008, White women earned 80 percent of
White men's earnings; Black women earned 89 percent of Black men's earnings; Hispanic women earned 89 percent of Hispanic men's earnings. The earnings gap affects the well-being of women and their families. If women earned the same as men, their annual family incomes would rise by $4,000. and poverty rates would be cut in half. Their
lost earnings could have bought a home, educated their children, and been set aside for retirement

Men with professional degrees may expect to earn almost $2 million more than their female counterparts . if women were men with the same credentials, they would earn substantially more. women's and men's credentials explain some differences, but experience accounts for only one-third of the wage gap. The largest part of the wage gap is caused by sex discrimination in the labor market that blocks women's access to the better-paying jobs through hiring, promotion, and simply paying women less than men in any job
On October 11, 1987, the largest gay rights demonstration occurred when approximately 250,000 lesbians, gay men, and their supporters marched in Washington, D.C. They held a parade, had a huge marriage ceremony to protest
the laws forbidding the marriage of gays, mourned their comrades who had died of AIDS, staged a mass civil disobedience action at the U.S. Supreme Court
to protest the 1986 decision upholding state sodomy laws (840 people were arrested), and joined with other activist groups. The Reverend Jesse Jackson
spoke at the rally:

• At the time of Stonewall, forty-eight states had sodomy laws meant to outlaw

• In 1969, no state or local government had a law protecting the civil rights of homosexuals. In 1996, the Supreme Court in Romer v. Evans ruled that states
and municipalities had the duty to protect gays from discrimination.

the Supreme Court overturned efforts by states to treat gays as second-class citizens.

• In another groundbreaking decision, the Supreme Court in 1998 ruled unanimously that sexual discrimination in the workplace applies to harassment between workers of the same sex. This ruling gives civil rights protections to all employees, male or female, homosexual or heterosexual, something unheard of in 1969.

• In 1994, more than 11,000 athletes from forty-four countries competed in Gay Games IV in New York City, an event beyond imagination in 1969; in 2006, Chicago hosted the games with approximately 12,000 participants.

• In 1997, there were approximately 100 gay-straight alliances (GSAs)—clubs for gay and gay-friendly kids—on U.S. high school campuses. Today there are at least 3,000 GSAs. In the 2004-2005 academic year, GSAs were
established at the rate of three per day (Cloud 2005).