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Western Civilization Ch. 7-10
Terms in this set (48)
Alfred the Great
Only king of England to be called "the Great". Administrative organizations and the patronage of the arts flourished in England under the reign of this king. Built the first English Navy. Signed a treaty taking over the southern part of England where he brought his passion for laws and learning.
Lived on the Continent. A monarch first dynasty was the Merovingians, then the Carolingians. These people were not Romanized.
Father of Pippin and grandfather of Charlemagne. Won the Battle of Tours in 732, one of the most influental battles in history. Laid the groundwork for the Carolingian Empire.
Very important figure, he was 6'5" tall. Ruled as King of Franks for 46 years. Son of Pippin, grandson of Charles Martel. Impressive warrior. Leader and reformer of the Church. Strengthens office of government, adds counts/dukes, has control of the aristocrats. Was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III. Very interested in education. Uses laws to keep order in his lands.
Charlemagne - Religiously
Solidifies Position of the Church. Adds Monasteries, Bishop Cities and creates uniformity within the Church.
The dynasty which Charlemagne belongs to, he was the greatest monarch. Second dynasty to rule France. Caused the demise of the Merovingian's. Had a very powerful relationship with the church. Brought about a renaissance because of Charlemagne but collapses because of succession problems after Charlemagne's death. Louis the Pious inherited the Empire from Charlemagne but Louis' son's clashed and split the empire in to thirds with the Treaty of Verdun which was the beginning of the end.
Charlemagne had a deeply curious intellect. because of this he knew the importance of education, recognized the worth of scholars and schools. he brought political, ecclesiastical and intellectual order to the Continent. This was a cultural rebirth where the Clergy was trained and the Bible mobilized, Cathedral and Monastery Schools were created. Libraries were created.
Scandinavian warriors. Skilled seamen. They had boats designed to be able to go upstream during raids and be beached easily. Were known for pillaging and for recording their history in sagas. Known as "Northmen". They were given Normandy by Charles the Bald.
The owner or controller of a medieval manor. Europe was fragmented in to these Manors which contained a home, outbuildings and at least one village. The owner had legal and economic power over peasants.
Noblemen who have bound himself in service to a lord. Swears a solemn oath of fealty and is bound to the lord for life. In return he would receive a fief, usually land or something equivalent to support him.
Men who fought. Warrior Aristocracy. Usually were horsemen. Took the code of chivalry. they were to defend the church, the poor and help women in need. They were expected to possess military prowess but had to be loyal, generous, courteous and of noble bearing.
William the Conqueror
1028-1087. Was duke of Normandy and was vassal to the King of France. Won the very important Battle of Hastings, defeating the Anglo-Saxon king to become king of England. Brought Feudalism to England. Built the tower of London.
Battle of Hastings
1066. After Edward the Confessor, King of England, died with no children the council of the king appointed Harold Godwinson as King. He was challenged first by Harold Hardradi of Norway at the battle of Stamford bridge, where Godwinson was victorious. Then by William the Conqueror at this battle. William won and became the King of England.
Was the son of William the Conqueror's daughter Matilda. He was a very impressive ruler who controlled a lot of land. He greatly increased the English holdings in France by his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine. He expanded royal control of justice in the land which caused controversy in the church but strengthened the power of the king.
King John of England
The worst king of England. Son of Henry the II. took the throne after his brother, King Richard the Lion-Hearted (who was also not a good king) died. he signed the Magna Carta after a rebellion from the barons due to his high-handed behavior.
Signed by King John of England in 1215. This said that kings were not above the law. this is a feudal document that promised the king would not impinge on noblemen's traditional rights. it also said that the king would impose no new taxes without the consent of the governed and would not violate the due process of law. This is treasured as one of the precedents of constitutional law.
The first ruler of the Capetians dynasty. Elected after the last Carolingian ruler died. He had good DNA and for over 300 years his male heirs lived long enough to have a son to inherit the throne.
Began with Hugh Capet in 987. this dynasty involved a long history of slowly reasserting control over the great nobles of their lands. Through strategic marriages and use of the feudal contract law rulers of this dynasty were able to regain control of lost regions. Louis IV was a Capetian and is considered by many to be the greatest of the medieval kings. He was proclaimed a Saint by the church. He was the first king to legislate for all of France and he confirmed the Parliament of Paris, the highest court in France.
Pope Innocent III
One of the most powerful and influential popes in history. He exerted leadership over all of Europe's Kings, insisting they obey him. He was a staunch opponent of heretics and to clarify christian believes he called the Fourth Lateran Council which identified seven sacraments and reaffirmed their essential role in reach in salvation. He was part of the new and improved Catholic church. He organized the Fourth Crusade.
Otto I "the Great"
Most powerful king of the Ottonian dynasty, which was successful of riding the church of secular power. He was a warrior king who was restored the title of emperor to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany). He fostered a revival of learning and received the crown of Roman emperor from Pope John XII.
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Was from the Salian dynasty. His mother Agnes was regent until he became of age. While his mother was in power the church took back their power that had been reformed by the Ottonians. He had a dramatic conflict over who should be the bishop of milan with Pope Gregory VII.
Pope Gregory VII
One of the great reforming popes. Decided that popes, not kings or emperors, should guide Christendom. This lead him in to conflict with Henry IV. Died in exile after his mercenaries devastated Rome and the outraged citizens forced him out.
The controversy between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor that was over who would appoint bishops in Germany. Gregory excommunicated Henry but then forgave him in the incident at Canossa. They battled again resulting in Pope Gregory VII being exiled and Henry IV spending the rest of his live trying to regain his authority.
Concordat of Worms
1122. Developed to separate church and state. Henry V negotiated a compromise in the investiture controversy. Popes could present the bishops with their symbols of office, showing church priority, yet the emperor was present and had an influence on the election. This was a victory for the popes.
Pope who called for Christians to begin a holy war against the newly strengthened Muslims. He promised crusaders remission of sins if they successfully fulfilled their vow to fight.
200 year period of religious warfare. Began as a peace movement. There were eight total with the first being successful resulting in Christians taking control of Jerusalem although it was a very brutal, bloody battle. Also resulted in attacks on Jews and anti-Jewish legislation.
Peace of God/Truce of God
European movements initiated by the Catholic Church designed to limit the violence of private armies in feudal society. "Christan soldiers don't fight Christan soldiers".
Peace of God-prevented violence against the church and the poor.
Truce of God-prevented violence between Christians, specifically Knights.
1315-1317. Caused by poor weather conditions, overpopulation and farming marginal lands. Everyone was affected, people were starving and desperate.
1347-1352. Wiped out 1/3-1/2 of the European population, which took until the 18th century to recover. Was brought by rats on Italian ships. Law and tradition broke down because of the psychological impact of so much death.
1358. French peasants revolt against the nobility. They are suppressed but the revolts resulted in improved conditions for the peasants.
The Great Rebellion
1381. The English peasants revolt, like the French they are also suppressed but also do get improved conditions for the peasants.
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl who saw visions of angels telling her to lead the french troops to victory during the Hundred Years War. She went on to lead the troops to victory but was captured and burned at the stake.
The Hundred Years War
Between England and France and actually lasted 116 years. Began at the end of the Capetian dynasty. There were three major battles. England originally is successful but then Joan of Arc leads the French in battle and they end up winning this war and the English were expelled from France.
War of the Roses
Between the House of York (White) and the House of Lancaster (Red). This was two Noble families fighting for the throne. Eventually Henry VII, a Lancaster, beat Richard III at the battle of Bosworth Field. After taking the throne he married Elizabeth of York ending this civil war and combining the two houses.
Avignon Papacy "Babylonian Captivity"
72 years that the pope ruled from France in the shadows of the French kings. Pope Clement V made what was supposed to be a temporary move to the south of France to help make the relationship between the church and France better. This occurred during the Hundreds years war and made England feel that the pope supported France.
After King Philip IV killed Pope Boniface VIII he pressured the cardinals in to electing this pope whom he then persuaded to rule from France, beginning the Avignon Papacy.
A roman cardinal who was elected pope, replacing the three competing popes, which ended the Great Schism and united the Western church under a single head.
The Great Schism
Began when there was both an Italian pope, Urban VI and a French pope, Clement VII elected. People were divided on who to follow but more for political than religious reasons. After a meeting which was supposed to choose a new pope, there were now three popes. It took another meeting to depose all three popes and elect Martin V, thus bringing an end to this conflict.
Famous for writing the Divine Comedy from 1308-1321. Born in Florance but eventually exiled he died a bitter, disillusioned man.
The Divine Comedy
Written by Dante and considered by many scholars to be a perfect medieval work. It is an epic poem that is an allegory of a soul's journey through despair to salvation. It contains three Cantos, one for Hell, Purgatory and Paradise.
1445-1510- Important Renaissance Artist. Painter who's famous works include the Birth of Venus and Primavera. Died poor and unappriciated. Was very religious and used Madonna and Child in his artwork.
Leonardo Da Vinci
1452-1519. Important Renaissance Artist. Considered a "Renaissance Man" The illagitamit son of a lawyer and a servant. Famous artwork includes the Last Supper and Mona Lisa.
1475-1564. Important Renaissance Artist. Had a 75 year career. An anguished man, his important works include Pieta (his only signed work), David and the Creation of Adam.
The teaching of humanities, literature, history, and philosophy that formed the core of the ideal Renaissance education which aimed to shape students to they could excel in anything.
Dignity of humans, Humanism in Education and Civic Humanism.
1304-1374. Italian scholar and poet who is often referred to as the Father of Humanism.
The birthplace of the Renaissance.
Lorenzo de Medici
1449-1492. Epitomized the ideal Renaissance ruler. A great statesman, he was also a patron f the arts, a poet and an athlete.
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