Which of the following is NOT classified as a "performance variable"?
- environmental conditions
Which of the following characteristics of learning best explains the description of the later stages of learning open skills in Gentile's model?
Which term is used in the motor learning research literature when referring to an observed behavior?
Which of the following is an essential component of the definition of learning?
It results in relatively permanent improvement
Which type of performance curve shows larger increases in performance during early practice trials than in later trials?
Negatively accelerating curve
Which method of assessing learning is used when people are required to perform a skill once a week after they completed practicing that skill?
If a person is required to perform a practiced skill in a new situation, which method of assessing learning is being used?
If you ask a person to perform a variation of a practiced skill, which method of assessing learning are you using?
If a fatigue condition depresses practice performance but not retention test performance, then fatigue would be called a
(TRUE/FALSE) An important performance characteristic associated with learning is that the person becomes increasingly more capable of adapting performance of the skill to new performance contexts and situations
Suppose you did an experiment that compared the effect of two practice conditions (A & B) on learning a skill. The results showed that during practice, performance for condition B was better than for A. But, on the transfer test, A was better than B. What should you conclude about which practice condition is better for learning?
Condition A is better for learning
What term is used when a performance reaches a steady state after showing steady improvement during practice and then begins to show improvement again?
(TRUE/FALSE) Practice performance provides a reliable means of determining how well a person will perform in a transfer test situation.
Which of the following is least likely to be evident about a performer from a performance curve?
According to Fitts and Posner, the learner moves through three stages when learning a motor skill. These are the cognitive, the associative, and the:
Gentile's learning stages model indicates that in the first stage of learning, the learner must learn to discriminate between which two types of environmental context conditions?
Regulatory vs. nonregulatory
Gentile's learning stages model indicates that in the second stage of learning, one goal of the learner is related specifically to closed skills. This goal is called:
When a person learning handwriting moves the three arm segments as if two of the segments were one, this person demonstrates an early learning characteristic known as:
freezing degrees of freedom
Performing a skill with minimum expenditure of energy is usually associated with which stage of learning?
The brain areas that are active during the early stages of learning are typically:
NOT the same as the areas active in the later stages of learning
If a novice and highly skilled typist were required to perform a verbal secondary task while typing on a keyboard the novice's typing performance would be:
more negatively influenced than the skilled typist's
(TRUE/FALSE) Learners in the later stages of learning typically "freeze degrees of freedom" in their attempt to control the multiple degrees of freedom of a complex motor skill.
Which of the following do transfer tests in motor learning research NOT involve?
The practice skill one day after practice ends
The general rule of thumb for predicting positive transfer between two motor skills is that the degree of positive transfer is related to the:
degree of similarity between the parts of the two skills
The transfer-appropriate-processing theory accounts for why positive transfer occurs by stating that positive transfer is due to the similarity of the:
cognitive processes required by two motor skills
The generally accepted view about the direction of bilateral transfer between two limbs is that it is:
The motor control explanation for bilateral transfer has been supported by research evidence showing
EMG activity in the non-performing limb when the opposite limb performs the skill
(TRUE/FALSE) One of the reasons for negative transfer is the initial cognitive confusion that occurs when a person must make a different movement in a familiar environmental context.
(TRUE/FALSE) When you perform a motor skill with your right arm, activity in the same muscles can be detected in your left arm.
(TRUE/FALSE) Verbal instructions that direct the performer's attention to the intended movement outcomes will lead to better learning and performance than instructions that direct attention to the movements used to perform the skill.
True (???? may be false -- ch 14 ppt slide 20)
(TRUE/FALSE) A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it has been demonstrated in laboratory conditions but not in conditions outside the laboratory.
(TRUE/FALSE) A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it applies only to beginners and not to more skilled performers of motor skills.
(TRUE/FALSE) Research has shown that beginners who observe other beginners practicing a skill will perform at a higher level when they begin to perform the skill than the beginners they observed.
(TRUE/FALSE) To help beginning dancers learn the rhythmic structure of a dance routine, either auditory or visual demonstration will be similarly effective for learning.
(TRUE/FALSE) Concurrent augmented feedback always has negative effects on motor skill learning.
(TRUE/FALSE) The guideline for implementing practice variability for the learning of open skills is to vary both regulatory and nonregulatory conditions.
(TRUE/FALSE) Before you determine whether to use a whole or part strategy to practice a skill, it is important to first do a task analysis to address the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill.
(TRUE/FALSE) Research has shown that people who practice in a blocked practice schedule tend to overestimate how well they are learning during practice.
(TRUE/FALSE) Research has shown that the segmentation part-practice strategy will facilitate the learning of a musical score on a piano.
(TRUE/FALSE) Research has shown that mental practice is effective as a performance preparation strategy but not as an aid to learning a new motor skill.
(TRUE/FALSE) When mental practice involves visual imagery, it can take the form on internal or external imagery.
(TRUE/FALSE) Only the brain activity hypothesis is generally accepted as an explanation of the effectiveness of mental practice for motor skill learning and performance.
(TRUE/FALSE) The Elaboration Hypothesis states that contextual interference improves learning because as learners create new skill variations during random practice they create a more distinct memory representation of the skill.
(TRUE/FALSE) Bilateral transfer occurred in lab if practice of a mirror tracing task with the preferred arm resulted in performance improvement of the non-preferred arm, which did not practice the task.
(TRUE/FALSE) Research has demonstrated that mental imagery ability is an individual-difference variable that influences the success of mental practice.
(TRUE/FALSE) When mental practice trials and physical practice trials are included in practice sessions, skill learning can be as good as when the same number of trials involve only physical practice
(TRUE/FALSE) The terms modeling and observational learning often are used interchangeably with the term demonstration when they refer to the learning of motor skills.
(TRUE/FALSE) If you see where your golf ball goes after you hit it, the visual feedback you receive is known as knowledge of results.
True (???? May be false, could actually be KP and not KR -- see ch 15 ppt slide 7)
(TRUE/FALSE) Augmented feedback that tells a beginner those aspects of the performance that were correct can serve a motivational role to encourage the person.
(TRUE/FALSE) A schedule that organizes the practice of several skill variations in a serial order is an example of a practice schedule that involves a low amount of contextual interference.
(TRUE/FALSE) Research has shown that beginners who observe other beginners who observe other beginners practicing a skill will perform at a higher level when they begin to perform the skill than the beginners they observed.
(TRUE/FALSE) Research evidence shows that you can hinder the learning of a motor skill by a beginner by delaying the augmented feedback too long.
(TRUE/FALSE) Giving augmented feedback to a beginner only when he or she requests it is better than giving the augmented feedback on every trial
(TRUE/FALSE) The term practice variability refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics the learner experiences while practicing a skill
(TRUE/FALSE) Research has shown that the overlearning strategy benefits the learning of all types of motor skills.
(TRUE/FALSE) Before you determine whether to use a whole or part strategy to practice a skill, it is important to first do a task analysis to assess the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill.
Augmented feedback that tells a beginner those aspects of the performance that were correct can serve a:
motivational role to encourage the person
Which of the following describes why verbal labels and visual metaphoric imagery aid the learning of a complex motor skill?
They change an abstract array of movements to a more meaningful form
(TRUE/FALSE) Coordination dynamics is one of several ways to observe changes in movement coordination
(TRUE/FALSE) In Gentile's initial stage, the learner must identify and selectively attend to relevant information.
Which is most likely to display negative transfer?
Tennis and badminton (something related to a racket)
An archer practices target shooting. He has 50 arrows which he uses all during practice. He gets only augmented feedback of every 5th shot.
1) What is the absolute frequency of the augmented feedback?
2) What is the relative frequency of the augmented feedback?
2) 10/50 = 0.20 (or 20%)
Positive transfer INCREASES as the:
# of skill components (elements) increases for the 2 skills/context
Genitive explanation of bilateral transfer
important cognitive information acquired from practice with one limb and available when other limb begins to perform
What does the observer perceive from a demonstration?
the invariant features of the coordinated movement pattern
Hypothesis indicating that the role of augmented feedback in learning is to guide performance to be correct during practice; however if provided too frequently, it can cause the learner to develop a dependency on its availability and therefore to perform poorly when it is not available.
Which type of KP is more helpful for beginners, and which type is more helpful for advanced performers?
Prescriptive = beginners
Descriptive = advanced