How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

203 terms

Gas Exchange

Exam 4 Bio 182
STUDY
PLAY
exchange of gases between an organism and the environment
What is respiration?
Respiration
What is the exchange of gases between an organism and the environment
require continuous supply of oxygen and release excess carbon dioxide from body
Describe the general process of gas exchange for most animals.
Organismic and Cellular
What are the two different phases of respiration?
Organismic
What phase of respiration requires oxygen from the environment being taken up by animal and delivered to individual cells and where carbon dioxide is excreted into the environment?
Carbon dioxide is excreted into the environment, and oxygen from the environment is taken up by animal and delivered into individual cells
What is organismic respiration?
Organismic
What respiration phase is known as breathing?
Cellular
What phase of respiration takes place in the mitochondria where oxygen is a substrate and required for metabolic pathways and carbon dioxide is metabolic waste?
takes place in the mitochondria where oxygen is a substrate and required for metabolic pathways and carbon dioxide is metabolic waste
Describe the cellular respiration phase.
small, aquatic organisms
What type of organisms exhibit gas exchange by diffusion where dissolved oxygen from surrounding water diffuses into cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out of cells and no specialized respiratory structures are needed?
dissolved oxygen from surrounding water diffuses into cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out of cells and no specialized respiratory structures are needed
Describe the type of gas exchange by diffusion that occurs in small aquatic organisms.
oxygen from surrounding water diffuses into cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out
Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide gas exchange occurs in diffusion (or small aquatic organisms?
Sponges, hydras, and flatworms
Small aquatic organisms exhibit gas exchange through diffusion, what are some examples of these animals?
They don't have them because these organisms don't have complex gas exchange, rather oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuses into and out of the body
Why don't sponges, hydras, and flatworms have specialized respiratory structures that aide them in breathing?
Requires specialized respiratory structures to deliver oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide
Describe gas exchange that occurs in more complex organisms such as insects, fish, birds, and mammals.
actively moves air or water over respiratory surface
What is ventilation?
Ventilation
What action is described as actively moving air or water over respiratory surface?
protect their respiratory surfaces from drying
Unlike aquatic animals, terrestrial animals have adaptations that aide them in breathing. Describe this type of adaptation.
Body surface, tracheal tubes, gills and lungs
What are the four different types of respiratory surfaces?
Exchange gases across moist body surface
How do some invertebrates (most annelids) and some vertebrates (many amphibians) exchange gases throughout their body.
Insects and some other arthropods
What type of organisms have open circulatory system?
air enters network of tracheal tubes through spiracles along body surface that extend to all body regions and gases are exchanged in fluid filled tracheoles
Because insects and some arthropods have open circulatory system describe how they exchange gases.
Gills
Aquatic animals do not have lungs, instead they have what structure that aides in gas exchange?
Chordates
What type of animal generally have their gills covered?
thin projections of body surface that are usually found internally, outer surface exposed to water, and inner surface are near the blood vessels, are ciliated and/or folded, or covered by external plate
Describe the gills of aquatic animals.
Operculum
What is the external plate of aquatic animals used to cover their gills known as?
external plate of aquatic animals used to cover their gills
What is an operculum
Operculum protects gills and aids in ventilation, and countercurrent exchange system maximizes diffusion of oxygen into blood and carbon dioxide out of blood
Describe the process of gas exchange in bony fishes
Terrestrial Vertebrates
What type of animals have lungs and some means of ventilating them?
some means of ventilating them
Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs and ____________.
Amphibians and reptiles
What type of animals have lungs with some ridges or folds that increase surface area?
some ridges or folds that increase surface area
Amphibians and reptiles have lungs with __________.
lungs have extensions (air sacs) that draw air into system with two cycles of inhalation and exhalation
Describe in general terms how birds exchange gas with the environment?
Crosscurrent arrangement that increases the amount of oxygen entering the blood
What does gas exchanged through the walls of the parabronchi allow birds to do?
First inhalation. As the bird inhales, fresh air flows into the posterior air sacs partially into the lungs.
What is this process known as and describe it?
As the bird inhales, fresh air flows into the posterior air sacs partially into the lungs
Describe the process of first inhalation in birds.
First inhalation
What process occurs where the bird inhales, fresh air flows into the posterior air sacs partially into the lungs?
Enters through the trachea
Prior to entering the lungs and air sacs how does air get into the bird's system?
Posterior air sacs
The blue air sacs located posterior to the lungs are known as what?
First exhalation. As the birds exhales air from the posterior air sacs is forced into the lungs.
What is this process known as and describe it?
First exhalation
What process occurs when the birds exhales air from the posterior air sacs is forced into the lungs?
the birds exhales air from the posterior air sacs is forced into the lungs
Describe the process of first exhalation.
Second inhalation. Air from the first breath moves into the anterior air sacs and partly into the lungs. Air from the second inhalation flows into the posterior air sacs.
What is this process known as and describe it?
Second inhalation
What process occurs in birds when air from the first breath moves into the anterior air sacs and partly into the lungs. Air from the second inhalation flows into the posterior air sacs?
Air from the first breath moves into the anterior air sacs and partly into the lungs. Air from the second inhalation flows into the posterior air sacs.
Describe the process of second inhalation in birds.
Anterior air sacs, and posterior air sacs
What are the structures colored blue known as, what are the pink known as?
Second exhalation. Most of the air from the first inhalation leaves the body, and air from the second inhalation flows into the lungs.
What is this process known as and describe it.
Most of the air from the first inhalation leaves the body, and air from the second inhalation flows into the lungs.
In birds what happens during the second exhalation?
Second exhalation
What process in bird respiration has most of the air from the first inhalation leaves the body, and air from the second inhalation flows into the lungs?
Small, multicellular animals exchange gases through their body surface.
Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange.
Through the body surface
How do organisms such as roundworms exchange gas with the environment?
Insects and some other arthropods exchange gases through a system of tracheal tubes or tracheae
Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange.
Most aquatic animals exchange gases through gills that are thin structures that extend from the body, and can be either internal or external
Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange?
Lungs are adaptation for terrestrial gas exchange
Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange.
Respiration
What is known as the gas exchange between the blood and the external environment?
gas exchange between the blood and the external environment
What is respiration.
respiratory and cardiovascular system
Respiration is a shared responsibility of which two body system?
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
What is the function of the respiratory system?
Respiratory system
What body system keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs?
through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
Where does gas exchange occur in the respiratory system?
Cardiovascular system
What body system has blood vessels that transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc; and is the area where heart pumps blood?
Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc, and where the heart pumps blood
What is the function of the cardiovascular system?
Purify, warm, and moisten incoming air
What is the general function of the conducting passageways that allow air to enter the body?
Nostrils
What is the passageways through which air enters the nose?
Passageways through which air enters the nose
What is the function of the nostrils?
Nasal septum and conchae
What are the two types of nasal cavities?
Divides the nasal cavities in two parts
What is the nasal septum?
Nasal septum
What divides the nasal cavity into two different parts?
Conchae
What is composed of 3 different mucosa that are covered projections which increases the surface area exposed to the air and are used to regulate temperature, cleaning of the air?
composed 3 different mucosa that are covered projections which increases the surface area exposed to the air and are used to regulate temperature, cleaning of the air
What is the conchae?
Paranasal sinuses
What is composed of four cavities connected to the nasal cavities; produces mucus, lighten the skull, and gives resonance to speech?
composed of four cavities connected to the nasal cavities; produces mucus, lighten the skull, and gives resonance to speech
Describe the paranasal sinuses?
Paranasal sinuses
Which part of the nose gives resonance to speech?
Nostrils, Nasal cavities, and Paranasal sinuses
What are the three parts of the nose?
Pharynx
What is the throat known as?
Throat
What is the common name of the Pharynx?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
What are the three parts that make up the Pharynx (throat) called?
Nasopharynx
What part of the pharynx stretch from the internal nares to the soft palate?
stretch from the internal nares to the soft palate
Describe where the nasopharynx is located?
Stretches from the soft palate to the epiglottis
Describe where the oropharynx is located?
Oropharynx
What part of the pharynx stretches from soft palate to the epiglottis?
Laryngopharynx
What part of the pharynx stretches from the epiglottis to the opening of the larynx?
stretches from the epiglottis to the opening of the larynx
Describe where the laryngopharynx is located.
clusters of lymphatic tissues
Describe the general function of the the three sets of tonsils.
Pharyngeal, palatine, and lingual
What are the three sets of tonsils called?
Pharyngeal
What set of tonsil is also known as the adenoid and closes off the nose when it is infected
set of tonsil is also known as the adenoid and closes off the nose when it is infected
What is the pharyngeal?
The tonsils
What is the palatine?
adenoid
What is another name for the pharyngeal?
Palatine
What is the tonsils known as?
at the base of the tongue
Where is the lingual located?
Lingual
What part of the tonsils is located at the base of the tongue?
Larynx
What is formal name of the voice box?
Voice box
What is the general name for the larynx?
routes food and air into proper channels, and produces speech
What is the function of the larynx?
Larynx (voice box)
What routes food and air into proper channels, and produces speech?
Cartilages, vocal cords, and glottis
What are the three components that make up the larynx?
Thyroid cartilage and epiglottis
The cartilage is composed of two parts, what are they?
largest cartilage of the larynx known as the adam's apple
What is the thyroid cartilage?
Thyroid cartilage
What is the largest cartilage of the larynx known as the adam's apple?
Protects the superior opening of the larynx
What is the epiglottis?
Epiglottis
What protects the superior opening of the larynx?
Cartilage
What main part of the larynx is composed of the thyroid cartilage and epiglottis?
vocal cords
What are the folds of mucus membrane in the larynx which can vibrate with expelled air?
folds of mucus membrane in the larynx which can vibrate with expelled air
What is the definition of the vocal cords?
opening between the vocal cords
What is the glottis?
Glottis
What is the opening between the vocal cords?
It is surrounded by c-shaped cartilage rings
Describe the trachea.
Right and left formed by division of the trachea
Describe the primary bronchi.
two
The human body has how many lungs?
Right
Which lung is divided into three different lobes?
Left
Which lung is divided into two different lobes?
Hilus
What is the medial depression on each lung where the primary bronchus enters the lung?
medial depression on each lung where the primary bronchus enters the lung
What is the hilus?
Visceral Pleura, and Parietal Pleura
The lungs is composed of a double layered serous membrane, what are the names of these two membranes?
a double-layered serous membrane that covers the lungs
What is the visceral and parietal pleura?
Visceral pleura
What pleura layer is found on the surface of each lung?
pleura layer that is found on the surface of each lung
What is the visceral pleura?
Parietal pleura
What pleura layer is found on the surface of the thoracic wall?
pleura layer that is found on the surface of the thoracic wall
What is the parietal pleura?
pleural fluid
What type of fluid is secreted by the pleura within the pleural cavity?
fluid that is secreted by the pleura within the pleural cavity
What is the pleural fluid?
elastic tissue, blood vessels, bronchi and branches, and alveoli
What are the structures within the lungs called?
allows for expansion when gas enters, then returns to it's original shape afterwards
What is the function of the elastic tissues found in the lungs?
Elastic tissues
What part of the lungs allows for expansion when gas enters, then returns to it's original shape afterwards?
for gas exchange with the air
What is the function of blood vessels found in the lungs?
blood vessels
What part of the lungs allow for gas exchange with the air?
bronchi and branches
What part of the lungs branch and rebranch to form bronchioles?
branch and rebranch to form bronchioles
What is the function of the bronchi and branches found in the lungs?
alveoli
What part of the lungs is also known as the air sacs and respiratory zone and is the location for most gas exchange?
part of the lungs is also known as the air sacs and respiratory zone and is the location for most gas exchange
What is the alveoli?
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes. Air flows on one side and blood flows on the other side
What is the respiratory membrane composed of?
diffusion acts to cause gas exchange across this membrane and always requires a concentration gradient
Describe how diffusion occurs in the respiratory membrane?
must be thin and moist with large surface area
Describe how the respiratory membrane should be composed for efficient gas exchange?
average of 50-70 sq meters of gas exchange surface in healthy males and is 40x greater than the surface of the skin
Describe the respiratory membrane of a healthy male?
macrophages and surfactant
What do the alveoli contain?
Macrophages
What are phagocytic cells that pick up foreign organisms and debris?
phagocytic cells that pick up foreign organisms and debris
What are macrophages?
surfactant
What are chemicals that decreases the surface tension of alveolar fluid: lipid?
chemicals that decreases the surface tension of alveolar fluid: lipid
What is the surfactant?
pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, respiratory gas transport, and internal respiration
What are the four events in respiration?
Pulmonary ventilation
What describe when air moves in and out of the lungs (air in the inside of the body is exchanged with fresh air outside)?
air moves in and out of the lungs (air in the inside of the body is exchanged with fresh air outside)
What is pulmonary ventilation?
inhalation
What is another name for inspiration in pulmonary ventilation?
exhalation
What is another name for expiration in pulmonary ventilation?
inspiration
What is another name for inhalation in pulmonary ventilation?
expiration
What is another name for exhalation in pulmonary ventilation?
External respiration
What describes gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and lungs where oxygen from fresh air in lungs moves into the blood and excess CO2 from the blood moves into the lungs?
gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and lungs where oxygen from fresh air in lungs moves into the blood and excess CO2 from the blood moves into the lungs
What is external respiration?
oxygen from fresh air in the lungs moves into the blood and excess CO2 from the blood moves into the lungs
Describe the movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen in external respiration.
Respiratory gas transport
What describes oxygen and carbon dioxide that are transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells where oxygen is pumped throughout the body is CO2 is pumped back into the lungs?
oxygen and carbon dioxide that are transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells where oxygen is pumped throughout the body is CO2 is pumped back into the lungs
What is respiratory gas transport?
oxygen is pumped throughout the body is CO2 is pumped back into the lungs
Describe the movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen in external respiration.
Internal respiration
What is described as gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells?
gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells
What is internal respiration?
The movement of air into the lungs
What is inhalation (inspiration)?
respiratory muscles contract the diaphragm muscles flatten, external intercostals are lifted and separated (expand), volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs increases, pressure in lungs decreases, and air flows into the lungs
What is the mechanism of inhalation (inspiration)?
they are dome-shaped muscles that flatten during inhalation
Describe the diaphragm during inhalation (inspiration).
they are ribs that are lifted and separated during inhalation
Describe the external intercostals during inhalation (inspiration).
diaphragm
What are dome-shaped muscles that flatten during inhalation?
External intercostals
What are they are ribs that are lifted and separated during inhalation?
increases
During inhalation does the volume of the thoracic cavity and the lung increase or decrease?
decreases
During inhalation does the pressure in the lungs increase or decrease?
The movement of air out of the lungs
What is exhalation (expiration)?
respiratory muscles relax, size of the thoracic cavity and lungs decreases, pressure in the lungs increases, and air flows out of the lungs
What is the mechanism during exhalation (expiration)?
they relax
What happens to the respiratory muscles during exhalation?
decreases
During exhalation does the volume of the thoracic cavity and the lung increase or decrease?
increase
During exhalation does the pressure in the lungs increase or decrease?
Amount of air moved into and out of the lungs
What is the tidal volume (normal breath)?
500ml
What is the approximate amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs?
Tidal volume
What is defined as the approximate amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs?
vital capacity
What is the maximum volume exhaled after lungs fill to the maximum extent?
maximum volume exhaled after lungs fill to the maximum extent
What is vital capacity?
residual capacity
What is defined as air volume remaining in lungs at the end of normal expiration?
air volume remaining in lungs at the end of normal expiration
What is residual capacity?
the actual exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood
What is external respiration?
Diffusion
In external respiration what is responsible for gas exchange?
Blood entering the lungs is deoxygenated, pulmonary ventilation keeps alveolar air fresh, in the lungs oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood and CO2 diffuses from the blood to the alveoli and blood leaving the lungs is oxygenated
Describe the mechanism for external respiration?
low O2 and high CO2
Describe the oxygen and CO2 concentration when blood deoxygenated blood enters the lung?
High O2 and low CO2
Describe the O2 and CO2 concentration during pulmonary ventilation.
oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood, and CO2 diffuses from the blood to the alveoli
What occurs in the lungs during external respiration?
Blood enters the lungs deoxygenated and leaves the lungs oxygenated
Describe the beginning and end products of blood as it travels into and out of the lungs.
keeps alveolar air fresh
What is the importance of pulmonary ventilation in external respiration?
Internal respiration
What is the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells?
exchange of gases between the blood and the cells
What is internal respiration?
responsible for gas exchange
In both internal and external respiration what is diffusion responsible for?
Blood enters the tissues oxygenated, tissue cells use O2 and produces CO2 during cellular metabolism, in the tissues O2 diffuses from the blood to the tissue cells, and CO2 diffuses from the tissue cells to the blood, blood leaving the tissue is deoxygenated
Describe the mechanism in internal respiration.
External respiration is the exchange of gas between the alveoli and the blood while internal respiration is between the blood and the cells
What is the difference between internal respiration and external respiration?
Lungs
Where does external respiration occur?
Tissue cells
Where does internal respiration occur?
blood enters the tissues oxygenated and leaves the cell deoxygenated
Describe the beginning and end products of blood as it travels into and out of the tissue cells.
O2 diffuses from the blood to the tissue cells and CO2 diffuses from the tissue cells to the blood
What occurs in the tissue cells during internal respiration?
tissue cells use O2 and produces CO2
What occurs during cellular respiration?
Sensitive to increase in CO2 concentration, stimulate respiratory centers, and respond to increase in protons or very low O2 concentration
Describe chemoreceptors.
regulate respiration
What is the function of respiratory centers in medulla and pons?
Chemoreceptors
What is sensitive to increase in CO2 concentration, stimulate respiratory centers, and respond to increase in protons or very low O2 concentration?
Regulating respiration
What is the labeled structures above used for?
Phrenic and intercostal nerves
What nerve is the center where the activity of the respiratory muscles is regulated?
establishes the basic respiratory rhythm, and contains a self-exciting inspiratory center, and is an expiratory center which interrupts inspiration.
Describe the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata.
Medulla oblongata
What neural center establishes the basic respiratory rhythm, and contains a self-exciting inspiratory center, and is an expiratory center which interrupts inspiration?
smooth out the basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration, stretch receptors in the lungs to prevent over inflation of the lungs
Describe the pons.
Pons
What neural center smooths out the basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration, stretch receptors in the lungs to prevent over inflation of the lungs?
Ciliated mucous lining traps inhaled particles in the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi
Describe the defense mechanism found in the gas exchange system.