Chapter 9 test
Terms in this set (32)
The biology of maleness and femaleness-ourchromosomal, chemical, anatomical, organization.Male and female.
The meaning that societies give to the fact of biological difference. Cultural meaning of masculinity and felinity. Gender varies from culture to culture. Definitions of gender change over time. Definitions of gender vary within a society-differnet things to be a man or woman. Gender varies over the life course-means to be a man or woman at a different age. Gender is dynamic in all of our interactions and part of the institutions we inhabit and the organizations we create. Found on our identity and woven into the fabric of social structures. Aspects-individual and institutional are bases of gender inequality.
Our understanding of ourselves as male or female, what we think of either gender. Sociologists are aware that other identities like gender or class dramatically affect gender identity. Intersection of these identities speak then of gender identities as plural:masculinites and feminizes. Differences among men and among women are often greater than the differences that we imagine between men and women.
Two dimensions: the domination of men over women and some men over other men by virtue of class inequality or race inequality and some women over women. This doesn't mean that all masculinities or feminizes are considered equal. All societies are characterized by some amount of gender inequality.
Men dominate women-male domination. The rule of the fathers and while fathers don't rule in every case, men holds power over women. Most societies grant more power and resources to some men and some women. Masculinity or felinity comes to dominate and becomes the standard against which everyone comes to be measured to be themselves. This is when race and class and the other bases of identity and inequality come in. Erving Goffman described masculinity and what it feels like to not have all characteristics. It's certain that all males might fail to measure up the required criteria.
Biology of Sex and Gender
Biological differences between men and women are thought to lead naturally and inevitably to the inequality we observe. Because of the difference, the argument goes and we shouldn't try to be similar. IF differences are nature, gender inequality is inevitable; changes in male-female relations contradict nature's plan and best avoided. Biological arguments rely in three types: evolutionary adaption, different brain structures and chemistry and hormonal differences. Sociologists are aware of these sorts of arguments because of sociological perspectives on sex and gender often run counter to them.
Differences we observe between women and men are the results of thousands of years of evolutionary adaption( Daly and Wilson). Males and females developed different reproductive strategies to ensure that they reproduce successfully and that they are able to pass on their genetic material to the next generation. Evolutionary biologists argue that men are naturally promiscuous and extremely reluctant to commit to a relationship. Females begins at conception. She must invest a significant amount of energy to ensure that her offspring is born and survives a very long infancy. Sociologists, they are unpersuasive. They work backwards by observing some difference in sexual behavior among contemporary people and reasoning back to its supposed evolutionary imperatives use selective data and ignore other natural behaviors like altruism and cooperation.
Any of the various hormones that affected development or growth of the male and female reproductive organs-result in very different gendered behaviors for women and men. Sex hormones that trigger sex development provide the causes of sex differences. The process by males and females diverge biologically-primary characteristics-anatomically present at birth, like sex organs themselves-develop in the embryo. Secondary sex characteristics-breas development, lowering of boy's voices, and development of facial hair. Helps to understand interaction of biology and culture-both nature and nurture-pretend that something as complicated as personal identity and social arrangements between women and men can be reduced to either nature or nurture.
Monogamous, Masculinity and Promiscuous femininity
Evolutionary psychologists argue that the size and number of reproductive cells lead inevitably to different levels of parental investment in children. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy added that human females conceal estrus, potentially sexually receptive throughout their entire menstrual cycle, unlike other female mammals that go into the heat when ovulating and who are otherwise utterly uninterested in sex. It means that one can use the same-or even better biological evidence and construct the exact opposite explanation. We should be extremely cautious in accepting evolutionary arguments.
Cross cultural variations of sex and gender
Cultural definitions of masculinity and felinity cary significantly; thus sex differences are not something deeply biological. Margaret Mead, famous anthropologist to study cultural differences. Described three South Seas cultures that remarkably different ideas about what it meant to be a man or woman. Women and men were seen as very similar as Arapesh-both mean and women were feminine. Mundugamor-both men and women were violent, competitive, aggressive, sexual and jealous. Tchambuli-believed that men and women were very different. One sex was charming and graceful spending days gossiping and shopping-men. Women were the complete opposite. Argued that develop cultural explanations that claim their way is the natal way to do things. But all arrangements are equally culturally based.
Cross cultural research
Explores both universally of gender difference and inequality and remarkable variety in our cultural prescriptions of masculinity and felinity and proper relations between them. The question is not biology or culture-nature or nurture-but both. Our biological sex is one factor, the raw material of gender identity. Antrhopologists observe gendered division of labor and gender inequality. Sociologists believed that a genders division of labor was functional-societies became more complex, dividing work from family life made more sense and became females had a nursed the babies, they should remain at home and do all the house-based tasks while males went to hunt or fish. Fredrich Engels observed that the three foundations of modern society-private property, the modern nation-state and the nuclear family-all seem to have emerged at the same time. Claimed that private property both caused male domination and helped shape all modern political institutions. Wrote all family were large communal arrangements, with group marriages and gender equality. But the idea of private property brought with it several problems. Nuclear family-father being the head, children were his and modern law guaranteed the orderly transfer of property. Required enforcement and creation of private property brought with it the modern family and the modern state.
contemporary anthropologist who examined what happens when a market economy is introduced in a traditional culture. The more people got involved in producing for a market instead of for themselves, the more gender unequal the culture became
Argued that warfare and the preparations for the war are the main causes of male domination because warfare demands that there be a core group of highly valued fathers ad sons to carry out its military tasks.
Size and strength-more a society need and values physical strength and the highly developed motor skills, the greater the level of gender inequality. Large families leads to greater gender difference whereas for small families, males and females cross over and perform each other's jobs.
Economic activity-cheif predictor of gender equality. More property a woman produces or controls-especially after getting married, the status increases.
Child care-responsible for child are, status tends to be lower. Scott Coltrane said that the closer the relationship between father and son, higher status is likely because of the men's participation
Blurring the Boundaries of Gender
The simple dichotomy between males and females and two genders-masculinity and femininity. Some biologists pointed out that the simple dichotomy of male and female sex is a convenience that fails to consider all various possible experiences. Ex. Berdache is a method that men becomes a woman and a woman acts like a man. Anthropologists take on the gender binary in the same way that there may be more genders out there than we know. Both sex and gender may be continual and not discrete categories. Some societies recognize more than two genders-sometimes three or more. Navaho-three genders-masculine, feminine and the ladle for sex ambiguous at birth. Perform tasks for both men and women.
Process that males and females are taught the appropriate behaviors, attitudes, and traits for their biological sex. Begins at birth and continues throughout our lives. People interact with children for cultural expectations about gender on the child itself. Barrie Throne researched about boys and girls. Discovered that girl cross over the boy's side are labeled tomboys and a boy who crosses the girls side are sissies. Boys and girls not only learn about gender difference, but they learn about inequality.
Created the M-F test and IQ test that gave attention about gender. Sensed that parents were anxious about htier child and with the student, he tried to identify all the various facts, traits, attitudes, behaviors, and preferences that could codify masculinity and femininity. Gender identity became successful adoption for Sex and Personality. Believed that masculinity and femininity were end points on a continuum and all children could be placed along that continuum from M to F. Authorities wanted boys on M and girls on F side. This test was used to determine successful acquisition of gender identity and still being used until the 60's. Boys who scored high on F side were homosexual and girls who scored low on the M side were nonhomosexual.
Biology is Destiny
Edward C. Clarke mentions about women's rights during the nineteenth century. There were so many limitations for the women and found out that educated women had fewer children than non-educated mothers. Women admitted the mental hospitals were college educated compared to men.
Eleanor Maccobhy and Carol Jacklin
more than 1,600 empirical studies found a surprising degree of similarity between the sexes and i how they are raised, especially in the first few years of life. Found only four areas with significant and consistent gender differences.
1. Girls-higher verbal ability
2.Boys-better visual and spatial ability
3.Boys-somewhat better on mathematical tests
4.Boys are more aggressive than girls
social construction of gender
we construct our gender identities all through our lives using the cultural materials we found all around us. Both voluntary-we choose to become who we are and coerced-pressured, forced and often physically threatened to conform to certain rules. Don't make up the rules we have to play by, but we do bend and shape them to make them feel like their ours.
To define the bundle of traits, attitudes, and behaviors that is associated with biological males and females. Roles are blueprinted because it shows what you should do, think, want, and look like so you can successfully become a man or woman. The role model ignores several important dimensions of gender identity and gender inequality. The two gender roles are independent: his and hers. Points out that masculinity and felinity are not independent, we know what it means to be a man or woman by reference to the other nor equal. Masculinity-and the traits associated with it-more highly valued than femininity. Role-capture gender because it speaks of sex riles or class roles. Speak of gender relations to emphasize who the definitions of masculinity and felinity are developed in relation to each other.
gender wage gap
the gap between the median wages for women and men costs American families.
feminization of poverty
refers to the disproportionate concentration of poverty along women, specially among female headed households. Diane Pearce, the feminization of poverty is a worldwide phenomenon that also afflicts US women.
Glass Ceilings and the Glass Escalator
Gender inequality extends to promotions. Women often hit a glass ceiling, a barrier beyond which they cannot go, despite the facts that they can see others above them. The glass ceiling refers to the artificial barriers that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward within their organization into management level positions. Different for men when they enter female-dominant occupations. Christine Williams found that male librarians, nursery school teachers, and nurses hit a glass elevator to the top-in part as a way to preserve masculinity.
Form of gender discrimination in the workplace. Creates unequal work environment by singling out women for different treatment. Quid pro quo harassment-supervisor uses his or her position to ry to elicit sexual activity from a subordinate by threatening to fire, or promise to promote or repeatedly pressure a subordinate for a date or sex. Hostile environment-occurs hen a person feels threatened or unsafe because of constant teasing or threatening by other workers. Most common but difficult to prove.
second shift-the housework and child care that also need to be done after a regular working shift is over. Women and men work for a living outside the home, and women does the majority of work inside the home. Housework and child care are largely women's responsibilities. It illustrates gender inequality; gender politics of housework;women do not have a biological predisposition to do laundry or wash dishes.
the feminization of love. Society is positively values talking and expressing our feelings but also downplay practical help, shared physical activities, spend time together, and sex which men are more comfortable with. Close loving relationships require a good deal of both emotional sharing and practical activity, Separation of spheres leaves both women and men unfulfilled. Couple who confide most of their experiences to each other but rarely cooperate or give each other practical help, or a couple who help each other through many crises and cooperate in running household but rarely discuss personal experiences.
Modern women's movement was born to remove obstacles to women's full participation in modern life. First wave of the women's movement was concerned with women's entry into the public sphere. 1960's and 1970's, second wave of women's movement appeared determined to continue the struggle to eliminate obstacles to womb's advancement but also equally determined to investigate the ways that gender inequality is also part of the personal life which includes relationships with men. They also focus on men's violence against women, rape, the denigration of women int he media, and women's sexuality and lesbian rights, as well as wage disparities and the glass ceiling. Third wave of the women's movement emerged among younger women today. Share outrage at institutional discrimination and interpersonal violence, they also had e relationship with mass media and consumerism. They support the rights of lesbians, they are also heterosexual and isn't on the ability to be friends and lovers with men. More multicultural and seek to explore and challenge the intersections of gender inequality such as class, race, ethnicity and sexuality. They are equally concerned with racial inequalities or sexual inequalities and see the ways that they are empowered than foremothers.
belief that women should have equal political, social, sexual, economic and intellectual rights to men. It insists on women's equality in all arenas in the public sphere, in interpersonal relations. They carry on two foundations: an empirical observation is that women and men are not equal; the gender inequality still defines our society. Moral stand is that the inequality is wrong and should change. It is also about women's choices and the ability to choose to do what they want to do with no greater obstacles than the limits of their abilities.
Follows classical liberal policy theory and focuses not he individual woman's rights and opportunities. Liberal feminist want to remove structural obstacles that stand in the way of individual woman's entry and mobility in their occupation or profession or the political arena. Liberal feminists have been at the forefront of campaigns for equal wages and comparable worth, as well as reproductive choice.
Women are not discriminated against just economically and politically, they are also oppressed and subordinated by men directly, personally, and most often through sexual relations. Radical feminist often believe that patriarchy is the original form of domination and that all other forms of inequality derive from it. To radical feminists, it is through sex that men appropriate women's bodies. They are active in ending prostitutions, pornography, rape, and violence against women. Robin Morgan mentions about pornography is the theory, rape is the practice. They are also successful in bringing issues of domestic violence and rape to international attention. They created a growing worldwide concern for the new and revived sex slave marketplace.
argues that the experience as people of color cannot be extracted from the experience as women and treated separately. Emphasize the historical context of racial and class-based inequalities. Patricia Hill Collins show how the treatment of slaves in the South was also part of a differential treatment of African women and men. Slavery was not only racial inequality, it was gender inequality. Bell Hooks argue that the focus on the family, workplace, or sexuality as the sites of gender inequality does not track perfectly for Black women. Most sociologists are following the lead of third wave feminists and exploring intersections of gender, race, class, age, ethnic and sexual dimensions of inequality.