APES Chapter 6
Terms in this set (74)
What is the world's most populous country? How many people? How many in 2050? 2025?
China; 1.3 billion; 1.5 billion; 1.4 billion
What has China done to help reduce population growth?
Since 1960s, began intrusive birth control and family planning program that gives extensive benefits to families with one child in them.
Between 1972 and 2010, what happened to China's birth rate? What happened to the average number of children born per woman? One child policy has reduced population size by about how many people?
it was cut in half; average number of children born to a women went from 5.7 in 1972 to 1.5 in 2010; 300-400 million people
How many children are born per woman in the U.S.? Which population is growing faster: US or China?
What happened to China's economy in the 1980s? How many middle class consumers does it have?
it experienced rapid growth; 100 million
Why should we care about rapid population growth? (2 reasons)
As population grows and incomes rise, we use more natural resources and increase ecological footprint; If we are not meeting the basic needs of 1.4 billion people on Earth, 1/5, how will we support another 2.7 billion by 2050?
For the past 200 years, the human population has experienced what kind of growth curve?
What 3 factors explain the population increase that humans have experienced over the past 200 years?
humans are able to expand to all climate zones, modern agriculture helps us make more food, and death rates have dropped significantly because of improved health care and sanitation
Is our population growth mainly a result of an increase in birth rates?
no, decrease in death rates
How many humans were on Earth 10,000 years ago when agriculture began? How many are there today?
5 million; 6.9 billion
How long did it take the human population to reach its first 2 billion people? What year did it reach it? How long did it take to add another 2 billion? When did that happen? How long did it take to add another 2 billion? When did that happen? What is this called?
the time we arrived on Earth until 1927; 50 years; 1974; 25 years; 1999; Exponential growth
In 2012, we will be facing how many people? 2050?
7 billion; 9.5 billion
Is the rate of population growth slower than before? What is the rate? What kind of growth is it? How many people added in 2010? Per day in that year? Per heartbeat? Is this growth expected to change?
year; 1.21% a year; Exponential; 83 million people added in 2010; 227,000 people a day; 2 people per heart beat; expected to continue
What percent of the people born in 2010 were born in developed countries? What is their growth rate? What percent were born in less-developed countries? What is their growth rate? How many times faster than growth rate of developed countries?
1%; .17% a year; 99%; 1.4% a year; 9x faster
What percentage of people in 2050 will be born in less-developed countries? What are the 5 most populous countries today? What will they be in 2050?
95%; China, India, USA, Indonesia, and Brazil; India, China, USA, Pakistan, and Indonesia
Is there a chance for stabilizing the size of the human population? What will happen to the human population as it moves towards its carrying capacity?
little, if any; it will level off from J curve to S curve and transition into logistic growth
What is a demographer? What 3 factors do demographers consider when making projections about population growth?
experts who make population growth projections; they have to determine the reliability of current population estimates, they make assumptions about trends in fertility and those mistakes magnify over time, and population projections are made by many organizations and each one uses different sets of data and methods
What is cultural carrying capacity?
the max number of people who can live with reasonable freedom and comfort, without decreasing the ability of Earth to sustain future generations
Can any population continue to grow indefinitely? What did Thomas Malthus realize? What has modern technology proven about his finding? What percentage of Earth's land surface has been directly affected by human activities?
no; human population is increasing but supplies are not increasing as quickly; so far he has been proven wrong and food as grown exponentially with us; 83%
What 2 beliefs exist about populations and economics? What is each?
overpopulation, less-develped countries have 82% of the worlds population, and are degrading life support systems collectively; overconsumption, affluent and more developed countries have high rates of per capita resource use
The American ecological footprint is how many times larger than that of China's? India's? To sustain the USA current per capita resource use indefinitely, how many planet's would we need? By 2050, with the projected population increase, how many planet's will we need to support everyone? How many would we need if everyone reaches the US level of consumption per person?
4.5x; 9.5x; 1.3; 2; 5
What are the 8 ways that we altered nature to meet our needs?
reduced biodiversity, increased use of NPP, increased genetic resistance in pest species and disease-causing bacteria, eliminating many natural predators, introducing harmful species into natural communities, using renewable resources faster than they can be replenished, disrupting natural chemical cycling and energy flow, and relying mostly on polluting and climate-changing fossil fuels
What happens to a population if there are more deaths than births? If they are equal?
What is crude birth rate? Crude death rate?
number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year; number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
What is fertility rate? What are the two types?
the amount of children a woman will have in her life time; replacement level fertility rate and total fertility rate
What is replacement level fertility rate? What is it in developed countries? Less developed? Why? Total fertility rate? What is expected to happen to TFR in developed countries? Less-developed?
the average number of children that couples in a population must bear to replace themselves 2.1; 2.5; some children die before reaching their productive years; drop; rise slightly
What was the U.S. population in 1900? 2010? How many years did it take to add first 100 million people? Second 100 million? Third? What was 1946-1964 called? How many people were born? What was the TFR at its peek? Since 1972 it has been? In China in 2010?
76 million; 310 million; 139 years; 52 years; 29 years; Baby boom; 79 million people born; 3.7 children per woman; 2.1 children per woman; 1.5 children per woman
A drop in TFR will? How many people were born in U.S. in 2010? How many immigrants? How many births? Why?
slow the rate of population growth; 2.7 million; 900,000; 1.8 million
Along with population growth, what is wrong with the American population?
In 1907 the 3 leading causes of death were?
pneumonia, tuberculosis, and diarrhea
How many people were there be in the U.S. in 2050? What will happen to the populations of other developed countries?
423 million; populations will decrease
What are the 9 factors that affect birth rate and TFR (Total fertility rate)?
the importance of children in the labor force, the cost of raising and educating children, the availability of a public pension system, infant deaths, urbanization, opportunities available for woman, average age at marriage (age at which woman has first child), availability of abortions and birth control, and religion and cultural norms
Women usually have fewer children when their average age at marriage is? Every year, how many women get pregnant? How many get abortions?
25; 190 million; 40 million
The rapid population growth of the world's population over the past 100 years is a result of? How?
decline of death rates; better sanitation and medicine over all
Two useful indicators of the overall health of the people in a country are?
life expectancy and infant mortality rate
What is life expectancy? What is infant mortality rate? Between 1955 and 2010, what happened to the global life expectancy? What country has the world's longest life expectancy? At? Between 1900 and 2009, what happened to the life expectancy of the U.S.? What will it be in 2050? What is the life expectancy in the world's poorest countries?
age number of year a newborn can be expected to live; babies out of every 1000 born who die before their 1st birthday; went from 28 years to 69; Japan; 83 years; 47 years to 78; 83; 57
What is used as the best measure of a society's quality of life?
infant mortality rate
In areas with low infant mortality rates, women tend to have?
What happened to the infant mortality rate since 1965? How many infants die every year? Per day?
declined; 4 million; 11,000
What was the infant mortality rate in 1900? 2010? Although the U.S. is number 1 in health care spending, what rank are we in terms of infant mortality rates?
165; 6.4; 54
What are the 3 reasons why the mortality rate is higher in the U.S. than it should be?
inadequate health care for poor women, drug addiction among pregnant women, and high birth rates among teens
What is child mortality rate? What happened to it between 1960 and 2008? How many child deaths in 1960? 2008? What is the most common cause of child mortality?
annual number of deaths among children under age 5; dropped 20%; 20 million; 8.8 million; drinking contaminated water
In 2009, how many people migrated? From less-developed to developed? How many environmental refugees in 2008? How many added per year? By the end of this century, this number could become?
190 million; 60 million; 40 million; 1 million; 250 million
Since 1820, the U.S. has admitted how many times more people than other countries combined? Immigration accounts for what percentage of American population growth? Between 1820 and 1960, most of these immigrants were from? In 2009, what percentage of immigrants were hispanic? 2050?
two times as many; 36%; Europe; 15%; 30%
What percentage of Americans support reducing legal immigration? How many illegal immigrants came to the U.S. in 2009? If baby boom children are to receive benefits, what must grow?
60%; 11 million; the work force
If replacement level fertility rate was at 2.1 children per woman, what would happen to population growth? Why? Explain? What are the 3 categories?
the population would keep growing for another 50 years; age structure; the number or percentage of males and females in young, middle, and older age groups in population; pre reproductive, reproductive, and post reproductive
What ages are pre-reproductive? Reproductive? Post reproductive?
0-14; 15-44; 45+
Why might a population still experience rapid population growth even if the number of births per woman decreases to 1 or 2?
demographic momentum, or the number of girls entering their prime reproductive years may be extremely large due to age structure
In 2010, what percentage of the world's population was under 15? In less developed? More developed?
27%; 30%; 16%
A country experienced rapid growth, has a growth rate ranging between? Expanding slowly? Stable? Declining?
1.5-3%; .3-1.4%; 0-.2%; negative
What is the fastest growing age group? By 2050, their population will be how many times larger? One in every ___ will be a ___. This is largely due to? In 2025, there will be how many seniors per 100 workers? 2050?
seniors; 3x larger; 1/6 people will be seniors; declining birth rates and medical advances; 30; 60
Baby boomers account for what percentage of todays population? Those born since 1980 are called? They will face? In 1960, what fraction of americans were older than 65? 2030? By 2020 we will need how many more immigrants to support retired people? By 2050, our population would become? What percentage would be immigrants and their descendants?
36%; millennial generation; higher unemployment and taxes; 1/11 Americans; 1/5 Americans; 10.8 million immigrants per year; 1.1 billion; 73%
When there are more old people in a population, there is less? In 2010 Japan's population was? What might it be in 2050? What percentage of it's people will be over 65?
growth; 127 million; 95 million; 40%
In China, average what is increasing? What percentage of people in 2010 were over 60? 2020?
age; 8%; 31%
Rapid population decline can lead to? A country experiences a rapid baby bust when its TFR falls below? What happens when this happens?
social and economic problems; 1.5 children per woman; sharp rise in the proportions of older people
Between 1981 and 2009, AIDS killed how many people? How many people per year does it kill today? Who does it mostly kill? What percentage of people in Africa have HIV? 2 Effects of the AIDS pandemic include?
27 million; 2 million per year; young adults; 15%-26%; leaves orphaned children behind affecting age structure and contributes to the loss of productive young adult workers
What are the 3 steps to reducing populations growth?
reduce poverty through economic development, elevating the status of women, and encouraging family planning and reproductive health cares
What is a demographic transition? What are the four stages?
as countries become more industrialized and economically developed, their death rates decline and then their birth rates decline; pre industrial, transitional, industrial, and post industrial
Explain how the population growth happens in the pre industrial stage? Transitional? Industrial? Post industrial?
it fluctuates as there exist high death and birth rates; death rates fall and birth rates increase; both birth and death rates drop; population growth levels off and birth rates equal and then fall below death rates
What fraction of falling states experience rapid population growth? In 2010, Somalia was growing at what percent a year? TFR was? What percent of people were under 15?
17/20; 3%; 6.5 children per woman; 45%
What things hinder demographic transition in less developed countries?
shortages of skilled workers, instability which causes high growth, high poverty, large foreign debt, and a drop in economic assistance from developed countries
Woman tend to have less children when they are what 4 things?
educated, earning income, safe societies that do not suppress them, and ability to control fertility
Women do what percent of the world's work associated with growing food? What percentage of the world's income do they make? What percentage of land do they own? What percentage of the world's poor do they account for? What percentage of the world's illeterates do they account for?
60-80%; 10%; 2%; 70%; 64%
What is the number of school aged girls who do not attend elementary school? How many times larger than the U.S. population? Poor women who cannot read on average have how many kids? Women that can read?
900 million; 3x; 5-7 kids; 2 below
What is family planning? What does it do to the number of abortions and premature deaths? Family planning is responsible for a drop of what percent in TFR in less developed countries? The avg. TFR in 1960 was? 2010? Had there not been a sharp drop in TFR since the 1970s, what would our population be today?
promotes education and services that help couples choose how many children to have and when; 55%; 6.0; 2.7; 8.5 billion
One dollar spent on family planning saves how much in future health, education, and social service costs?
What two problems remain even after TFR has dropped?
42% of pregnancies in the world are unplanned and 26% end in abortion, 1.5 million unplanned births in the U.S in 2007 and 1.3 million abortions; 201 million couples in less developed countries want to limit number of children but lack access to family planning services
Unmet needs for family planning and contraception in less developed countries could each year prevent how many unwanted pregnancies? Abortions? Infant deaths? Global population size could be reduced by how many people by 2050, if family planning is provided to those in need? How much will that cost a year per couple?
52 million; 22 million; 1.4 million; 1 billion people; $20
Experiences in countries like japan, Thailand, South Korea, China show that a country can achieve? How?
replacement level fertility within a decade or two; by promoting economic development, elevating social status of women, and encouraging family planning
The first national family planning program began where and when? What was India's population in 1952? 2010? What country added the most people in 2010? How many people is that? What percentage of India's population is under 15? China's?
India in 1952; 400 million; 1.2 billion; India; 18 million; 32%; 18%
India is the __ largest economy. How many people in it's middle class? How many live in slums? How many in villages? What percentage of people are unemployed? What percentage of people struggle with poverty? China's poverty rate is only about __ of India's.
second; 50 million people; 1/4; 2/3; half; 3/4; half
India's TFR is? What 2 factors help keep families larger in India? What percentage of Indian people have access to a form of modern birth control? What percentage of those people actually use one?
2.6 children per woman; more children mean more workers when parents are older, parents keep producing until they have several boys; 90%; 48%
What percent of the world's population is in India? What percent of the world's land resources are in India? What percent of the world's forests are there? What percent of it's cropland is degraded? What fraction of its water is polluted? India is going rapid economic growth, which means what? What are the conflicting sides of this?
17%; 2.3%; 2%; 50%; 2/3; higher middle class, less poverty, higher ecological footprint; economic growth would slow population growth but hurt environment
3 main ideas?
human population increasing rapidly and will have a catastrophe, increasing per capita eco footprint expands overall footprint, we can slow population growth by promoting economic growth, elevating status of women, and encouraging family planning
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