Strayer Chapter 7 Commerce and Culture
Strayer Chapter 7 Commerce and Culture
Terms in this set (43)
a commercial network across Eurasia and the trans-Saharan trade routes, that linked pastoral and agricultural peoples as well as civilizations of western and eastern Eurasia
Why did the silk road begin where did it?
the silk rode began as ancient trade routes linking China and Central Asia so exchange of goods among communities occupying different ecological zones could happen
Why are political systems important for trade?
Political systems were important for trade because wealth available from controlling and taxing trade motivated the creation of states in various parts of the world and sustained those states once they had been constructed
How were goods transported along the Silk Road to sustain the networks of exchange among its diverse people?(more than just using the camel)
vast array of goods made their way across the Silk Roads, often carried in large camel caravans that traversed the harsh and dangerous steppes, deserts, and oases of Central Asia
Why was silk such a desired commodity across Eurasia?
silk became a symbol of social status, proved wealth, was used as currency and was associated with growing world religions (Buddhism and Christianity)
What are some theories oh how the silk making process left Asia?
Chinese story attributes it to a Chinese princess who smuggled out silkworms in her turban when she was married off to a Central Asian ruler. In a European version of the tale, Christian monks living in China did the deed by hiding some silkworms in a bamboo cane, an act of industrial espionage that allowed an independent silk-producing and silk-weaving industry to take hold in the Byzantine Empire
What was silk used for?
- Central Asia, silk was used as currency and as a means of accumulating wealth
- Both China and the Byzantine Empire, silk became a symbol of high status, and governments passed laws that restricted silk clothing to members of the elite
- Buddhist monks in China received purple silk robes from Tang dynasty emperors as a sign of high honor
- In the world of Christendom, silk wall hangings, altar covers, and vestments became highly prestigious signs of devotion and piety
What was the major economic consequences of the Silk Road Commerce?
more job opportunities
What was the major social consequences of the Silk Road Commerce?
merchant communities introduced in to northern china
What was the major cultural consequences of the Silk Road Commerce?
spread disease, religion, and ideas
Why did Buddhism appeal to the merchants along the Silk Road ?
because merchants preferred Buddhisms universal message to that of a Brahmin-dominated Hinduism that privileged the higher caste
How did Buddhism spread in oasis cities? Outside of oasis cities?
Buddhism quickly took hold in the oasis cities conversion was a voluntary process, without the pressure of conquest or foreign rule. Outside of the oasis communities, Buddhism progressed
only slowly among pastoral peoples of Central Asia
What diseases were spread on the Silk Road and where did they come from and go?
- Athens was afflicted by a new and still unidentified infectious disease that had entered Greece via seaborne trade from Egypt
- Roman Empire and Han dynasty got Smallpox and measles
-outbreaks of bubonic plague from black rats arrived via the seaborne trade with India ravaged the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea
the black plague or "Black Death" was a fatal disease spread by fleas which lived on rats and humans killing about 1/3 of the population and was carried by fleas. Because of this, the feudal system died out, and centralization of pwer became more prominent.
Where did the Black Plague begin? How was it transmitted?
This plague started in Asia and traveled to Europe by rat-infested Italian ships trading goods across the Mediterranean Sea.
During the plague 1/3 or more of the population died in Europe alone. Who benefited from the plague? How?
Tenant farmers and urban workers could demand higher wages or better terms now that workers were in short supply
How did the plague affect China?
The Central Asian steppes, home to many nomadic peoples including the Mongols, also suffered terribly, undermining Mongol rule and permanently altering the balance between pastoral and agricultural peoples to the advantage of settled farmers. In these and many other ways, disease carried by long-distance trade shaped the lives of millions and altered their historical development
Indian Ocean Trade
widespread commercial network sea-based trade routes that connected distant peoples all across the Eastern Hemisphere
How were the Silk Road and the Indian Ocean trade similar?
trade grew out of the vast environmental and cultural diversities of the region and the desire for various goods not available at home provided incentives for Indian Ocean and silk road commerce
How did the transportation operation of the Indian Ocean trading network differ from that of the Silk Roads? (more then the used boats!)
Indian Ocean trade used ships and could accommodate larger and heavier cargoes than camels on silk roads. This meant that the Sea Roads carried more bulk goods and products destined for a mass market whereas the Silk Roads were limited largely to luxury goods
alternating wind currents that blew predictably eastward during the summer months and westward during the winter
How did monsoons make Indian Ocean trade possible?
An understanding of monsoons and a gradually accumulating technology of shipbuilding and oceanic navigation drew on the ingenuity of many people (Chinese, Malays, Indians, Arabs, Swahilis, and others) and collectively they made "an interlocked human world joined by the common highway of the Indian Ocean."
When did Indian Ocean trade begin?
dating back to the First Civilizations. Seaborne trade via the Persian Gulf between ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization
Why did the tempo of Indian Ocean commerce pick up in the era of classical civilizations?
The tempo of Indian Ocean commerce picked up in the era of classical civilizations during the early centuries of the Common Era, as mariners learned how to ride the monsoons
What region became the center of the Indian Ocean trade network?
The fulcrum of this growing commercial network lay in India itself where ports were bulged with goods from both west and east
What other changes occurred during the flourishing of Indian Ocean Commerce after the rise of Islam in the 7th century? in Arab Empire
brought together in a single political system an immense range of economies and cultural traditions and provided a vast arena for the energies of Muslim traders.
What other changes occurred during the flourishing of Indian Ocean Commerce after the rise of Islam in the 7th century? in Middle east
Middle Eastern gold and silver flowed into southern India to purchase pepper, pearls, textiles, and gemstones.
What other changes occurred during the flourishing of Indian Ocean Commerce after the rise of Islam in the 7th century? in Muslim Merchants
Muslim merchants and sailors, as well as Jews and Christians living within the Islamic world, established communities of traders from East Africa to the southern China coast.
What other changes occurred during the flourishing of Indian Ocean Commerce after the rise of Islam in the 7th century? in Mesopotamia/East Africa
They used wasteland in Mesopotamia to cultivate sugar and dates, which brought thousands of slaves there from East Africa for plantations and salt mines in terrible conditions.
How did the Indian Ocean trade affect SE Asia and E. Africa?
In both regions, trade stimulated political change as ambitious or aspiring rulers used the wealth derived from commerce to construct larger and more centrally governed states or cities. Both areas likewise experienced cultural change as local people were attracted to foreign religious ideas from Hindu, Buddhist, or Islamic sources.
a Malay kingdom that dominated this critical choke point of Indian Ocean trade from 670 to 1025
Why did Srivijaya have an important role in Indian Ocean trade?
A number of factors—Srivijaya's plentiful supply of gold; its access to the source of highly sought-after spices, such as cloves, nutmeg, and mace; and the taxes levied on passing ships—provided resources to attract supporters, to fund an embryonic bureaucracy, and to create the military and naval forces that brought some security to the area.
an East African civilization that took shape as a set of commercial city-states stretching all along the East African coast The cites took goods from the African interior and exchanged them on the cost for foreign products like porcelain, silk, and rugs
Describe Swahili 's social aspects
Swahili civilization rapidly became Islamic. Introduced by Arab traders, Islam was voluntarily and widely adopted within the Swahili world.
Describe Swahili 's economic aspects
cities were commercial centers that accumulated goods from the interior and exchanged them for the products of distant civilizations,
Describe Swahili 's political aspects
politically independent, generally governed by its own king, and in sharp competition with other cities. No imperial system or larger territorial states unified the world of Swahili civilization. Nor did any of them control a critical choke point of trade
Trans-Africa trade was rooted in environmental variation For instance, ___________
a. the great Sahara held deposits of copper and especially salt,
while its oases produced sweet and nutritious dates
b.the savanna grasslands immediately South of the Sahara produced grain crops such as millet and sorghum
c. the forest further south had root and tree crops such as
yams and kola nuts predominated
Who traded and what was traded before the official beginning of the Sands Roads?
the agricultural peoples traded largely among themselves in the area later known to Arabs as the Sudan, or "the land of black people."the peoples of Sudanic West Africa began to exchange metal goods, cotton textiles, gold, and various food products across considerable distances using boats along the Niger River and donkeys overland
What changes did trans-Saharan trade bring to West Africa?
a. Long distance trade across the Sahara provided both incentive and resources for the construction of new and larger political structures
b. Muslims traded what along the Sahara?-Slaves from non-Islamic and stateless societies farther south and some were white women from the Eastern Mediterranean.
c. Sudanic states developed substantial urban and commercial centers
d. Describe the Mali Kingdom?-had centers of manufacturing, creating finely wrought beads, iron tools, or cotton textiles, some of which entered the circuits of commerce.Visitors described them as cosmopolitan places where court officials, artisans, scholars, students, and local and foreign merchants all rubbed elbows.
Ibn Battuta is generally considered one of the greatest travelers of all time. His journeys included trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa (Northeast Africa.), West Africa and Eastern Europe, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China.
Describe some factors that inhibited the development of long distance exchange networks in the Americas?
no domesticated animals to help trade,no clear writing system, little contact with each other geographic boundaries
What were the Inca roads used for?
Transporting goods by pack animals or messages by foot.
Why did the Andean Inca Empire largely control trade, not allowing a professional merchant class to emerge?
Inca trade was state-run, and they had no merchant group like the Aztecs.