61 terms

Cognitive Psychology

A process or event within the individual which comes between a stimulus and a response
Cognitive Map
Tolman's Term for the mental representation of learned relationships among stimuli
A sudden change in the way one organizes a problem situation, typically this is characterized by a sudden chnage in behavior from random responding to rule based responding
Mental Set
In Gestalt Psychology, the cognitive Schema an individual uses to organize their perception of a particular situation such as a problem
Latent Learning
A term used by Tolman to describe situations in which learning is distinct from the performance of a behavior
The process of gathering information and organizing into mental schemas
The retention and use of prior learning
Active retrieval of information
The process of identification presented information as familiar
An improvement in performance which occurs by reviewing despite the inability to recall or recognize the information
A phenomenon whereby a thought or memory increases the activation of associated memories
Sensory Memory
a modality specific transient form of memory which serves as a buffer between the senses and short term memory
the process of selectively focusing on particular stimuli elements, typically those deemed most important
Handles retention of material up to 15 seconds
Handles retention of memory infinately
Basic measure of STM capacity
the processing of stimulus information for retention in memory
the retention of information in memory
Maintenance rehearsal
the retention of materials in short term memory by means of rote repetition
elaborative rehearsal
the active processing of terms in short term memory in order to code the information for long term memory which may be processed in a variety of active methods
procedural memory
component of long term memory which stores 'how to' information
episodic memory
the portion of long term memory which contains personal experiences
free association
technique used by Freud for studying the mind, based on asking a person to say simply whatever words come to mind when givent a stimulus.
Freud: a defense mechanism in which impulses, memories or ideas are forcibly blocked from the conscious mind
cue dependent coding
the concept that all information is stored in memory as a set of relationships called the context, remembering is seen as dependent on resorting the cues which formed the original context
spontaneous memory loss from the passage of time
forgetting in STM due to new and incoming information
according to associationism, competition between items can hamper learning and produce forgetting
retroactive interference
in memory, a form of interference in recent experiences makes it difficult to recalls something learned earlier
proactive interference
a form of interference in which prior experiences make learning and recall of subsequent experiences difficult
built up interference can lead to the breaking of associations and therefore the destruction of memories
the principle that remembering is determined by whether the true information exists in long term memory or not.
the principle that remembering and forgetting are dependent without proper cues. information which exists in long term memory may not be accessible
context dependent forgetting
failure to retrieve information from long term memory due to the absence of context cues.
state dependent forgetting
failure to retreve information from long term memory due to the absence of state dependent cues. mood. emotion
false recognition
a form of memory where the presence of familiar clues leads one to believe the stimulus matches a previously learned experience
the process of recreating a whole memory when only given a part of the scenario
the study and use of techniques for memory improvement
problem solving
process of determining appropriate actions in order to over come obstacles
a waiting period between problem solving in order to modify your mental set
convergent problem
problem that has a single solution
divergent problem
problem that has more than one solution
persistence of set
a mental set developed in a previous problem is maintained even though it is no longer appropriate and tends to interfere with the current problem you are trying to solve
functional fixedness
perceiving an object as having only one use
developing an alternative mental set for a situation such as when trying to solve a problem
think aloud protocol
transcript of the comments made when an individual is asked to describe their thoughts and behaviors while working on a task
initial state
the situation at the outset of a problem
goal state
the results
one of the actions permitted in order to solve a problem
a procedure for problem solving which always yeilds a result
a rule of thumb in problem solving
the capacity to produce something which is both unique and useful
learning set
a learned strategy which enables the individual to deal with problems of the same type
a system of communication based on symbols, gestures, which can vary across individuals and allow for new forms and meanings
social cognition
the mental processes involved in the way people perceive and react to social situations
personal belief of an avaluative nature such as good or bad
cognitive dissonance
conflict between behavior and belief
attribution theory
theory that states we make assumptions about our own behavior and that of others
fundamental attribution error
theory that states we make assumptions about our own behavior and that of others
self serving bias
when we attribute our successes to personal attributes and our failures to situational factors
cognitive appraisal theory
argues that our emotional state is based on our assessment of the situation and its significance to our well being