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A sudden change in the way one organizes a problem situation, typically this is characterized by a sudden chnage in behavior from random responding to rule based responding
In Gestalt Psychology, the cognitive Schema an individual uses to organize their perception of a particular situation such as a problem
A term used by Tolman to describe situations in which learning is distinct from the performance of a behavior
An improvement in performance which occurs by reviewing despite the inability to recall or recognize the information
a modality specific transient form of memory which serves as a buffer between the senses and short term memory
the process of selectively focusing on particular stimuli elements, typically those deemed most important
the active processing of terms in short term memory in order to code the information for long term memory which may be processed in a variety of active methods
technique used by Freud for studying the mind, based on asking a person to say simply whatever words come to mind when givent a stimulus.
Freud: a defense mechanism in which impulses, memories or ideas are forcibly blocked from the conscious mind
cue dependent coding
the concept that all information is stored in memory as a set of relationships called the context, remembering is seen as dependent on resorting the cues which formed the original context
according to associationism, competition between items can hamper learning and produce forgetting
in memory, a form of interference in recent experiences makes it difficult to recalls something learned earlier
a form of interference in which prior experiences make learning and recall of subsequent experiences difficult
built up interference can lead to the breaking of associations and therefore the destruction of memories
the principle that remembering is determined by whether the true information exists in long term memory or not.
the principle that remembering and forgetting are dependent without proper cues. information which exists in long term memory may not be accessible
context dependent forgetting
failure to retrieve information from long term memory due to the absence of context cues.
state dependent forgetting
failure to retreve information from long term memory due to the absence of state dependent cues. mood. emotion
a form of memory where the presence of familiar clues leads one to believe the stimulus matches a previously learned experience
persistence of set
a mental set developed in a previous problem is maintained even though it is no longer appropriate and tends to interfere with the current problem you are trying to solve
developing an alternative mental set for a situation such as when trying to solve a problem
think aloud protocol
transcript of the comments made when an individual is asked to describe their thoughts and behaviors while working on a task
a system of communication based on symbols, gestures, which can vary across individuals and allow for new forms and meanings
the mental processes involved in the way people perceive and react to social situations
fundamental attribution error
theory that states we make assumptions about our own behavior and that of others
self serving bias
when we attribute our successes to personal attributes and our failures to situational factors
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